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The Life and Times of
Samuel Hunsinger

This Time Line of the life and times of Samuel Hunsinger is designed to include His primary personal and immediate family member life events (shown below in red) along with the context of universal cultural, social, political, military, economic, and health events of those times plus the concurrent technological innovations that may have impacted the lives of Samuel Hunsinger and His immediate family members during His lifetime. It is hoped that reviewing His known personal life events within the context of these other various contemporary influences upon His life will help you better understand and appreciate life and times of Samuel Hunsinger.

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1820's

A1 Steak Sauce introduced

Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

Charles X of France crowned.

Fatal epidemic (cause unidentified) in the Canadian Columbia River drainage

James Beaumont Neilson (1792–1865), a Scottish inventor, patented a way of burning coal more efficiently in iron making that allows the low-grade coal in Lanarkshire to be used. Neilson realized that the force of the blast could be increased by passing hot air, rather than cold air, through the red-hot vessel. This reduced the amount of coal required to make iron, and greatly increased production efficiency to meet the demands of the railway and shipbuilding industries. His several defences of his patent were successful, and he became rich.

Mexico becomes a republic, three years after declaring independence from Spain. In 1824, a Republican Constitution was drafted and Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born country.

Simon Bolívar liberates Peru, becomes its president.

Alexander's younger brother, Nicholas I (1796–1855) is crowned Emperor of Russia and ruled until 1855. Nicholas was one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 7.7 million square miles.

Bolivia wins independence from Spain.

Col. John Stevens, III (1749-1838), of Hoboken, NJ built and operated first experimental steam locomotive in the US. The first railroad charter in the U.S. was given to Stevens and others in 1815 for the New Jersey Railroad. He designed and built a steam locomotive capable of hauling several passenger cars at his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1825. The invention of the steam engine helped begin the modern railroads and trains. He also helped develop United States patent law.

Erie Canal opened October 26, 1825. The first boat left Buffalo on that day and reached New York City on November 4. Canal cost $7 million but cut travel time one-third, reduced shipping costs 90 percent, and opened the Great Lakes area for passage to and from New York, thus mading New York City the chief US port.

First passenger-carrying railroad in England.

First steam powered railways are run in England.

German language study introduced at Harvard University

Harmonists build their third town, Old Economy, now part of Ambridge, PA

Inauguration of President John Quincy Adams 1825

Putnam County, named for General Israel Putnam (1718-1790), was created in the state of Illinois January 13, 1825 and created from Fulton County. Putnam was an American army general who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775) during the American Revolutionary War. Although Putnam never attained national renown in his own time, his reckless courage and fighting spirit were known far beyond Connecticut's borders (at the age of 22 he moved from Salem Village/now Danvers, Massachusetts to Mortlake/now Pomfret, in northeastern Connecticut and his house still stands) through the circulation of folk legends celebrating his exploits. Tradition describes young Putnam crawling into a tiny wolf's den with a torch, a musket, and his feet secured with rope as to be quickly pulled out of the den. While in the den, he allegedly killed the she-wolf, making sheep farming in Mortlake safe.

Russian Tsar Alexander I dies. (His sudden death in Taganrog, under allegedly suspicious circumstances, caused the spread of the rumors that Alexander in fact did not die in 1825, but chose to "disappear" and to live the rest of his life in anonymity.)

The Decemberist uprising in Russia took place in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg December 14, 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. The revolt was suppressed by newly crowned Czar Nicholas I.

The parallel 54°40' north forms the southernmost boundary between the U.S. State of Alaska and the Canadian Province of British Columbia. The boundary was originally established as a result of tri-partite negotiations between the Russian Empire, the British Empire and the United States, resulting in parallel treaties in 1824 and 1825

1826 M.Taveau in France invents mercury amalgam fillings.

An act of the US Congress set off the mania of planting silkworm mulberry, a short-lived industry.

Cholera epidemic begins in India.

Deaths of former presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, on 50th anniversary of American independence, July 4th, 1826.

Fort Vancouver Canada established by the Hudson Bay Company on Columbia River in 1826 to secure the area and act as the hub for their fur trading in the Pacific Northwest

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce takes the world's first photograph. building on a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light. Niépce and Louis Daguerre refined this process. Daguerre discovered that exposing the silver first to iodine vapor, before exposure to light, and then to mercury fumes after the photograph was taken, could form a latent image, and then bathing the plate in a salt bath fixes the image. These ideas led to the famous daguerreotype.

Russian Tsar Nicholas I forces the Ottoman (Turkish) to recognize the independence of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Serbia. Russian troops invade Iran.

The Third Section of the Chancellery is created in Imperial Russia, a secret department set up in Imperial Russia, effectively serving as the Imperial regime's secret police for much of its existence. The organization was relatively small. Created in 1825, it included only sixteen investigators.

The friction match is invented in England.

The unexploited forests of Burma gave impetus to the British conquest of that country. The first area opened (Tenasserim) "was stripped of teak within twenty years." By the end of the century about 10,000,000 acres of Burma forest were cleared.

Twigs (apparently predominately of basket willow) had long been utilized in England to record tax payments. Notches made in each twig indicated the amount of tax paid. Once split the notched twig yielded two records of payment. When the tax records went to paper transaction in 1826, the archive of twigs was burned. The resulting fire escaped control and took with it the Houses of Parliament.

Dr. Francis Lieber (1800-1872), from Berlin begins editing the Encyclopaedia Americana in Boston in 1827. He is most widely known as the author of the Lieber Code during the American Civil War, also known as Code for the Government of Armies in the Field (1863), which laid the foundation for conventions governing the conduct of troops during wartime.

Edgar Alan Poe (1809-1849) publishes his first book, best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective-fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe published his first book, "Tamerlane and Other Poems," in 1827.

Francisco Morazán leads the Liberals in a civil war in Honduras - the war lasts about two years.

Russian troops conquer Iran.

Baltimore & Ohio first US passenger Rail Road was begun on July 4, 1828.

1828 - 1829 Russo-Turkish War, 1828-29

1829-1831 Pope Pius VIII

Catholic Emancipation Act removes last vestige of oppression in England.

Coenraad Johannes van Houten (1801-1887), a Dutch chemist and chocolate maker, developed the first modern process for making cocoa powder. Soon producers in Holland had learned that alkali could be added to neutralize various acids, making a mild, more soluble cocoa. This process is still called "dutching" today. A method for pressing the fat (cocoa butter) from roasted cocoa beans, was his father's, Casparus van Houten (1770-1858), invention.

Helsinki replaces Turku as the site of Finland's sole university.

Leo Tolstoy is born.

Noah Webster published his "The American Dictionary of the English Language" in 1828.

Russo-Turkish wars (again... from 1828-1829) Russia gains control of the eastern coast of the Black Sea.

South Carolina declared right of state nullification of federal laws on December 19, 1828, opposing "Tariff of Abominations."

Uruguay wins independence from Spain.

Birth

Samuel Hunsinger born on March 15, 1829

First Inauguration of President Andrew Jackson 1829

Gottfried Duden (1789-1856) published in Germany his idyllic account of the several years he spent as a settler in Missouri. Entitled Bericht über eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten Nordamerika's, or "Report of a journey to the western states of North America", it gave romantic and glowing descriptions of the Missouri River valley between St. Louis and Hermann, Missouri. He established a farm near what is now Dutzow, Missouri along the Missouri River near Washington, Missouri. His book on the region, comparing the Missouri River to the Rhine in Germany, and his positive remarks concerning the climate, culture and soils in Missouri led to tens of thousands of German immigrants to the area beginning in the 1830s. By 1860, more than 38,000 Germans had settled in the lower Missouri River valley and thousands more to other parts of America.

Greeks win independence from the Ottoman empire at the end of a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1830, with later assistance from several European powers

Pope Pius VIII

The first steam driven train is developed for use between Manchester and Liverpool.

Treaty of Adrianople concluded the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

1830's

1

1830 - 1831 Polish-Russian war following November Uprising

1830 Britain imports 18,956 chests of opium to China. Opium becomes the largest commodity in world trade.

Soft drinks in America introduced

2

1831 Cholera epidemic spreads from Russia to Central Europe.

1831 Smallpox epidemic in Wurtemberg, Germany, where 995 vaccinated people succumb to the disease.

In Marseilles, France, 2000 vaccinated people are stricken with smallpox

3

Christian Hahnemann creates school of homeopathy.

4

1833 Mercury amalgam fillings introduced in NYC. Dentists rebelled.

Second Inauguration of President Andrew Jackson 1833

6

1835 First availability of powerful compound microscopes.

1835 Toledo War between US territory of Michigan and the US state of Ohio

Worcestershire Sauce introduced

7

1836 First recorded case of the use of psychiatry to suppress dissent in Russia.

8

Idaho potatoes introduced

Inauguration of President Martin Van Buren 1837

Ralph Waldo Emerson's Concord Hymn July 4, 1837

9

1838 Smallpox epidemic in England.

10

1839 - 1842 First Anglo-Afghan War

1839 - 1842 Second Anglo-Afghan War

1839 First time a disease is traced to a parasitic organism. (Schoenlein, fungal infection of scalp).

1840's

11

Baltimore Dental College graduates swore not to use mercury amalgam.

First Opium War in China, as Chinese protest British import of drugs.

12

Inauguration of President William Henry Harrison 1841

14

1843 - 1872 Several Maori Land Wars in New Zealand

16

Inauguration of President James K. Polk 1845

17

1846 - 1848 Mexican War between the United States and Mexico

Nucleus of physicians in New York form the American Medical Association.

18

Chinese food in America introduced

19

1848 - 1849 Hungarian Revolt of 1848 waged by Hungary against Austria and later Russia

1848 - 1851 First war of Schleswig

1848 Dr.Semmelweis at the University of Vienna Medical School cuts infant deaths by requiring doctors to wash their hands. Subsequently fired.

20

Concord grapes introduced

Inauguration of President Zachary Taylor 1849

1850's

21

1850 - 1865 Taiping Rebellion

A new way of thinking develops in German science, which maintains that people are similar to complex machines. It does nothing to take into account the spiritual basis of man. This thinking becomes the basis for experiments in psychology in order to discover the nature of humans and how to program them. The work of Wundt is the primary source of these ideas. American elite begin to come to Germany to study this way of thinking.

British physician presents a paper detailing microscopic examination of food products to the US . The paper revealed that all food products examined in Britain were adulterated with foreign substances, including chemicals. Hearings periodically held for decades.

Homeopathic college founded in Cleveland, Ohio.

Modern marshmallows introduced

US prison population is 29 per100,000 (This goes up to 250 per 100,000 by 1994).

24

1853 Chloroform first used as anesthetic in England.

1853 Dr. Isaac Brown, a prominent British surgeon and president of the Medical Society of London, creates a surgical procedure to remove the clitoris from women on the grounds that "masturbation caused epilepsy and convulsive diseases."

1853 First use of hypodermic needle for subcutaneous injection.

1853 Smallpox epidemic in England.

In England, the Compulsory Vaccination Act . From 1853 to 1860, vaccination reached 75% of the live births and more than 90% of the population.

Inauguration of President Franklin Pierce 1853

Potato chips introduced

25

1854 - 1856 Crimean War.

26

1855 Compulsory nature of Massachusetts vaccination statute firm, and a pre- condition for school admittance. Statutes created in the belief it would "protect children from smallpox."

1855 Outbreak of cholera in England.

27

Samuel Hunsinger died on February 02, 1856

Condensed milk introduced

28

1857 - 1901 Caste War of Yucat?n

1857 Vaccination in England enforced by fines. Smallpox epidemic begins in England that lasts until 1859. Over 14,000 die.

Inauguration of President James Buchanan 1857

29

1858 England experiences a 7 year epidemic of Pertussis (ending in 1865) in which 120,000 die.

30

His mother, Elizabeth Shull Hunsinger, died on January 11, 1859

1859 - 1860 Italian Independence War

1869 Mohandas Gandhi born

Darwin publishes The Origin of Species

Rumford Baking Powder introduced

1860's

31

Fish & chips introduced

Introduction of antibiotics and immunization into the US.

32

1861 - 1865 American Civil War in the United States

First Inauguration of President Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1861

The Battle Hymn of the Republic

The Constitution of the Confederate States of America March 11, 1861

The Declaration of Causes of seceding states Winter 1861

33

His father, Jacob Hunsinger, died on December 19, 1862

December 1682 Henry de Tonti made Governor of Illinois by France.

McClellan's Letter to President Lincoln July 7, 1862

Vernor's Ginger Ale & Gulden's mustard introduced

34

1863 Second major epidemic of smallpox in England lasts until 1865. 20,000 die.

Breakfast cereal introduced

The Gettysburg Address Nov. 19, 1863

35

1864 Pasteur invents pasteurization process for wine.

1864 Second war of Schleswig

The Emancipation Proclamation 1864

36

1865 George Peabody (Rothschilds) conceives of "tax exempt charitable foundation".

1865 U.S. President Lincoln assassinated

Second Inauguration of President Abraham Lincoln 1865

37

1866 - 1868 Red Cloud's War between the Lakota and the United States

1866 Austro-Prussian War (aka Seven Weeks War)

38

1867 Joseph Lister introduces sanitation into surgery,over the objections of leading English surgeons.

Appeal to Congress for Impartial Suffrage by Frederick Douglass Jan. 1867

Underwood Deviled Ham introduced

Vaccination Act of 1867 in England begins to elicit protest from the population and increase in the number of anti-vaccination groups. It compelled the vaccination of a baby within the first 90 days of its life. Those who objected would be continually badgered by magistrates and fined until the child turned 14. The law was passed on the assurance of medical officials that smallpox vaccinations were safe.

39

Tabasco sauce & Fleischmann's Yeast introduced

40

Conference of the British Medical Association devotes its surgery discussions to an attack on antiseptic theory and the work of Lister.

First Inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant 1869

1870's

41

1870 - 1871 Franco-Prussian War

1870 Third major smallpox epidemic in England begins and lasts until 1872. Over 44,800 die.

Margarine introduced

42

1871 Kaiser Wilhelm I declares a German Empire

1871 Worldwide epidemic of smallpox begins. Claims 8 million people worldwide.

In Bavaria, Germany, vaccination is compulsory and re-vaccination is commonplace. Out of 30,472 cases of smallpox, 29,429 had been vaccinated.

In Birmingham, England from 1871 to 1874, there were 7,706 cases of smallpox. Out of these, 6,795 had been vaccinated.

Select committee of the Privy Council convened to inquire into the Vaccination Act of 1867 (England), as 97.5% of the people who died from smallpox were vaccinated for it.

43

1872 - 1873 Modoc War between the Modoc and the United States

Japan institutes compulsory smallpox vaccination. Within 20 years 165,000 smallpox cases manifest themselves.

Philadelphia cream cheese & Graham crackers introduced

44

Second Inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant 1873

46

California raisins introduced

Public Health Act of 1875 in England promotes sanitary conditions.

1876 - 1877 Black Hills War between the Lakota and the United States

Heinz Ketchup introduced

1877 - 1878 Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78

Bicycles begin to be mass produced in the United States in 1877

Inauguration of President Rutherford B. Hayes 1877

Louis Pasteur tells his family never to show anyone his lab notebooks. His last surviving grandson donated the documents to the Bibiotheque Nationale in Paris in 1964. Later, historians would begin to examine Pasteurs notes and would find evidence of potential scientific misconduct and a large degree of dubious human experimentation.

1879 Joseph Stalin born

Saccharin introduced

1880's

1880 Recorded death rate from diabetes in Denmark is 1.8 per 100,000. (This will go up to 8 per100.00 in 1911 and 19 per 100,000 in 1934).

Beginning of a 20 year period where elite American students of Wundt in Germany return and become heads of psychology departments at Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, Cornell and all major universities and colleges. Wundt trains James Cattell, who returns to the US and trains over 300 in the Wundtian system which, with help from the Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations, eventually assume control of psychological testing in the United States for all the soldiers of the First World War.

Salt water taffy & French dressing introduced

Smallpox vaccinations start in the United States.

Sweden consumption of refined sugar 12 pounds per person annually. (This will go up to 120 lb per person annually in 1929).

The League of American Wheelmean is founded and begins producing maps and handbooks of the eastern U.S. in 1880

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