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The Life and Times of
George Johns, I

This Time Line of the life and times of George Johns, I is designed to include His primary personal and immediate family member life events (shown below in red) along with the context of universal cultural, social, political, military, economic, and health events of those times plus the concurrent technological innovations that may have impacted the lives of George Johns, I and His immediate family members during His lifetime. It is hoped that reviewing His known personal life events within the context of these other various contemporary influences upon His life will help you better understand and appreciate life and times of George Johns, I.

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1660's

1660-1685 Charles II King of England. English Parliament calls for the restoration of the monarchy and invites Charles II to return from France restoring the monarchy in England continuing through James II. Decision of Long Parliament of 1644 reversed reinstating the Apocrypha, but reversal was not heeded by non-conformists. Charles II agrees to respect the Magna Carta and Petition of Rights

Area of New Jersey settled by 1660

Area of North Carolina settled by 1660

1661 Charles II is crowned King of England. Louis XIV begins personal rule as absolute monarch; starts to build Versailles.

1661 Louis XIV becomes absolute monarch of France and begins work on palace at Versailles

Georg Hack from Cologne settles in Maryland

The Connecticut Colony Charter 1662

1662 Moliere's troupe performs "le ecole des femmes"

Britain importing 16 million pounds of sugar per year.

1664 - 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War including the capture of New Amsterdam, renamed New York City

1664 British take New Amsterdam from the Dutch. English limit "Nonconformity" with reestablished Anglican Church.

Isaac Newton's experiments with gravity.

Birth

George Johns, I born on July 27, 1665

1655-1667 Pope Alexander VII

1665 London swept by bubonic plague. It was noticed that people who lived without sugar escaped harm. Over 68,000 die.

1665 Robert Hooke identifies cells

Great Plague in London kills 75,000.

1

1666 Approval of the Canal du Midi is given to improve transportation in France and provide ships with a route to the Atlantic from the Mediterranean.

Great Fire of London.

Molière's Misanthrope.

2

1667 "Little Russia", an area around Kiev, is conceeded by the Polish government to the Russian government.

1667 Earthquake in Shemaka, Caucasia kills 80,000

1667 Epidemics of smallpox, dysentary begin.

1667 Milton's Paradise Lost, widely considered the greatest epic poem in English.

1667-1670 Pope Clement IX

The apparent danger of using animal serums foreign to human beings and animal serums foreign to other animals is reported in medical literature in 1667, when lambs blood was unsuccessfully used as a human blood transfusion.

3

1668 Francesco Redi attempts to prove that rotting meat cannot spontaneously turn into flies.

1668 Merck begins an apothecary shop in Darmstadt Germany.

Area of Michigan settled by 1668

Researcher and explorer Johann Lederer from Hamburg arrives

1670's

5

His wife, Mary Eathorn Johns, born during 1670

1670-1676 Pope Clement X

Area of South Carolina settled by 1670

Hudson Bay Co. founded with Prince Ruprecht as governor

Measles and tertian fever epidemics displace cholera.

7

1672 - 1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War

1672 - 1678 Franco-Dutch War

1672 Dysentary becomes mild and some smallpox occurs.

1672 Peter the Great

8

1673 In England the Test Act is passed, allowing only members of the Anglican Church to hold public office.

1673 Inoculation against smallpox appears in Denmark.

1673 Marquette and Jolliet descend the Mississippi, return to Wisconsin via Illinois River and Lake Michigan.

Jacques Marquette discovered Mississippi June 17, 1673.

Jacques Marquette visited present site of Chicago, in present day Cook County.

Kaskaskia or La Vantum Indian village of 7-8000 inhabitants discovered September 1673 in present day Randolph county Illinois.

Moliere dies at age 51.

9

1674 First mention of diabetes mellitus in British Pharmaceutice Rationalis, by Thomas Willis, member of the Royal College of Physicians.

In Virginia the eventual demands of tobacco as a crop resulted in institution of slave labor in about 1674.

10

Death of Jacques Marquette at mouth of Marquette River, Michigan May 18, 1675.

1675 King Philip's War

1675 Malaria epidemic in England and discovery of "peruvian bark" quinine.

1675 Marquette founds mission near Starved Rock, Illinois.

Cowpeas in America introduced

Slave traders brought cowpeas to Jamaica. A native of India, this pea has many varieties important in the southeastern US, particularly the black-eye and the crowders.

11

1676 Jimsonweed gained its common name (originally Jamestown weed) when British soldiers in Virginia mistook Datura for an edible plant and "turn'd fool" with hallucinations that endured for eleven days.

1676-1689 Pope Innocent XI

Danish astronomer Ole Christensen Roemer observes that light moves at a finite speed by studying Jupiter's moons.

Nikolaus de Meyer from Hamburg (Germany) becomes Mayor of New York

The First Thanksgiving Proclamation 1676

12

1677 Ice cream becomes popular dessert in Paris.

1677 On February 2 first Baruch Spinoza dies.

13

1678 First medical treatise in America on smallpox and measles.

14

1679 England passes the Habeas Corpuss act guaranteeing people protection from arbitrary arrest.

1680's

15

1680 - 1684 Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

1680 La Salle builds fort Crevecoeur near Peoria, Illinois.

Cranberries in New Jersey introduced

January 1-15, 1680 Robert De LaSalle builds the Fort of the Broken Heart, the first thing done on the soil of Illinois with a view to permanent occupation, in present day Randolph County.

Robert De LaSalle first visits Illinois January 1680 .

16

1681 The Canal du Midi is finished after eight years of work. The Canal was to be a shortcut between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, avoiding the long sea voyage around hostile Spain and the Barbary pirates, and a trip that in the 17th century required a full month of sailing

17

1682 La Salle erects Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock, Illinois.

1682 Pennsylvania founded by William Penn

Fort called Fort St Louis, built on Starved Rock, near Utica in present day LaSalle County.

Ivan V and Peter I are co-rulers of Imperial Russia, with Peter's sister Sophia as the regent in 1682.

Peter I The Great rules Russia 1682-1725

Robert De LaSalle's third visit and discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi on April 7, 1682 and taken for possession of France.

The area of present day was settled by 1682

18

1683 Thirteen families of German Mennonites and Quakers seeking religious freedom arrived in Pennsylvania on the ship "Concord" led by Francis Daniel Pastorius. They purchased 43,000 acres of land and founded Germantown, six miles north of Philadelphia.

Vienna defended against Turkish invasion

War of European powers against the Turks (1683 to 1699). Vienna withstands three-month Turkish siege marking the high point of Turkish advance into Europe.

19

1684 French fleet bomb Genoa

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's calculus published.

20

1685 Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Germany.

1685-1688 James II King of England, succeeding Charles II in England, calls for freedom of conscience (1687). He passes laws to grant rights to Catholics and dissolves many anti-Irish laws. Protestants fear restoration of Catholicism and demand "Glorious Revolution."

In France, Edict of Nantes of 1598, granting freedom of worship to Huguenots, is revoked by Louis XIV. Thousands of Protestants flee France.

21

Area of Arkansas settled by 1686

22

1687 Boston Measles Epidemic

1687 Sir Isaac Newton publishes "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica"

French explorer Robert De LaSalle murdered March 19, 1687 in Texas.

23

Germantown, Pennsylvania's Pastorius pens first protest against slavery

James II William of Orange invited to throne of England and James II escapes to France (1688). William III and his wife, Mary, crowned joint rulers of England.

James II flees to Ireland. William and Mary become

24

1689 - 1698 War of the Grand Alliance

1689 French armies push eastward toward Rhine River valley and burn Heidelberg castle

1689 Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia-attempts to westernize nation and build Russia as a military power. Defeats Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava (1709).

1689-1691 Pope Alexander VIII

1689-1702 William III King of England, with Mary II as Queen until 1694

Beginning of the French and Indian Wars (1689 to 1763), campaigns in America linked to a series of wars between France and England for domination of Europe.

James II leads and fails a rebellion in Ireland.

King William's War between the British and the French in North America begins.

Sophia is forced off the Russian throne. Peter's mother rules as regent instead.

The Bill of Rights is passed in England.

1690's

25

1690 New York Yellow Fever Epidemic

1690 William III of England defeats former king James II and Irish rebels at Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.

In August 1690 a fleet of thirty-four ships leave Boston city to attack Quebec.

John Locke's Human Understanding.

Proprietorship of Fort St Louis granted to Henri de Tonti for fur-trading purposes.

Rice in South Carolina introduced

26

George Johns, I married Mary Eathorn on July 03, 1691

1691 British execute Frankfurt-born Jacob Leisler, first elected governor of New York and champion of American independence

1691-1700 Pope Innocent XII

1691-92 Henri de Tonti, La Salle's lieutenant, constructs new Fort St. Louis on Lake Peoria.

27

1692 Salem witch trials.

28

1693 Earthquake in Catania, Italy kills 60,000

1693 The first record of the grapefruit in the West Indies was made by Hans Sloane in a catalog of Jamaican plants. It is assumed the grapefruit originated there from chance hybrids between other cultivated citrus. This plant was not introduced to Florida until nearly 1850.

Famine struck northern Europe in 1693. By the next year fully 10% of the population of northern France had perished as a result.

29

1694 Ivan V and Peter of Russia become the real rulers of Russia after their mother's death.

Voltaire, a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties including freedom of religion and free trade, is born.

30

1695 Paris and Rome experience ferocious epidemics of Pertussis.

31

1696 Ivan V of Russia dies. Augustus II is elected leader of Poland.

32

1697 King William's War ends.

Father Francisco Cupani published the first scientific description of Lathyrus odoratus, a plant from Sicily and the parent stock of today's sweet pea. Seed that he sent in 1699 to Robert Uvedale, headmaster of Enfield Grammar School near London, resulted in cultivated forms, and by 1731, a famous selection called 'Painted Lady'.

33

His son, George Johns, II, born on August 15, 1698

34

1699 French found Holy Family Mission at Cahokia, in present day St Clair County, Illinois.

1699 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

Area of Louisiana settled by 1699

Area of Mississippi settled by 1699

1700's

35

1700 - 1721 Great Northern War between a coalition of Denmark/Norway, Russia and Saxony/Poland on one side and Sweden on the other side

1700-1721 -The Great Northern War, paralleled the War of the Spanish Succession. Russia assumes the position of a great power.

1700-1721 Pope Clement XI

35 million pounds of tobacco produced by the Virginia colony by 1700.

British Isles importing 20 million pounds of sugar per year.

Coffee in America introduced

Deaths from tuberculosis increase dramatically in England and other sugar consuming countries as the body environment changes to accommodate it.

In the 1700's the settling of the British American colonies by small German-speaking religious groups continued. The groups included Swiss Mennonites, Baptist Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, Moravians, Amish, and Waldensians. Most German immigrants belonged to the main Lutheran and Reformed churches. The central colonies received the greatest part of this immigration, especially Pennsylvania. As many as half of these immigrants came as redemptioners, that is, they agreed to work in America for four to seven years in exchange for free passage across the Atlantic. German settlers designed and built the Conestoga wagon, which was used in the opening of the American Frontier.

Refined sugar is the most important export of France.

36

1701 - 1714 War of Spanish Succession

1701 English Parliament passes the Act of Settlement

The Settlement Act of 1701 establishing the supremacy of Parliament in England and stating that only an Anglican can inherit the throne. William III of England heads the second Grand Alliance, which became involved in the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain obtains an Iroquois "deed" to western lands purportedly conquered by the Iroquois though later abandoned by them under pressure from enemies.

War of the Spanish Succession begins 1701 - the last of Louis XIV's wars for domination of the continent. The Peace of Utrecht (1714) will end the conflict and mark the rise of the British Empire. Called Queen Anne's War in America (1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French, it ends with the British taking New Foundland, Acadia, and Hudson's Bay Territory from France, and Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain.

37

1702 - 1713 Queen Anne's War The North American part of the War of Spanish Succession

1702 First appearance of yellow fever in the United States. It would appear 35 times between 1702 and 1800 and would appear almost every year between 1800 and 1879.

1702-1714 Anne Queen of England

Area of Alabama settled by 1702

England's first daily newspaper, the Daily Courant is founded 1702.

Fort St Louis discontinued.

William III (William of Orange), died on March 19, 1702, from complications after being thrown from his horse - Queen Anne succeeds to throne of England

38

1703

39

1704 Deerfield (Mass.) Massacre of English colonists by French and Indians.

Bach's first cantata.

Jonathan Swift's Tale of a Tub.

July 24-Aug 12, 1704 Capture of Gibraltar by British forces, Battle of Blenheim, Bavaria.

The first newspaper in America, the "Boston News Letter", begins publishing in 1704.

41

1706 Coffee trees were sent to the botanical garden in Amsterdam from Sri Lanka (where the Dutch had only recently managed to establish plantations, breaking an ancient Arab monopoly). A single tree survived, which was the parent of a tree at the conservatory in Paris. In 1723, de Cliey carried a single offspring from the Paris tree to Martinique, which yielded thousands of trees there by 1777. The Martinique plantations became the source of the first plants to be taken to the various coffee-growing regions of South America.

French are defeated at the Battle of Ramillies near the Belgian village of Ramillies-Offus, forcing them to withdraw from the Netherlands on May 23, 1706

42

British defeat at Almanza in Spain April 25, 1707

The Act of Union in 1704 joins England, Wales, and Scotland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

43

British victory over French at Battle of Oudenarde on July 11, 1708 - later in September the British capture Minorca

Casseroles introduced

44

1709 Famine struck Europe, affecting Prussia on a great scale.

1709 Peter the Great of Russia defeats the Swedes at Poltava.

1709 Plague in Turkey, Russia, Scandinavia and Germany through 1710.

Battle of Malplaquet, September 11, 1709, French defeated in the bloodiest battle of the war at the French village of Malplaquetl

First mass emigration from the Palatinate (modern German areas)

1710's

45

1710 - 1711 Russo-Turkish War, 1710-11, a part of the Great Northern War

1710 Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber leads his clan into the area now called Kuwait and within the next twenty years establishes an unofficial rule.

650 Palatines and Swiss settle at New Bern, NC in 1710

Root beer introduced

46

1711 British forces, together with the American colonies, attempt to attack Quebec, but are discouraged when a storm in the St. Lawrence sinks nine of their ships.

Marlborough forces the "Non Plus Lines." August 05, 1711

47

1712 Captain Frezier introduced the Chilean strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis, to France. It arrived in Britain a few years later. This plant, along with the North American species taken to France by Jean Robin in 1624, is in the ancestry of today's commercial strawberries.

1712 First record of vaccinations for smallpox in France.

New York Slave Rebellion of 1712, in which Native and African slaves united.

48

April 11, 1713 Peace of Utrecht signed, treaty of which recognizes Iroquois (several tribes of indigenous people of North America based mostly in present-day upstate New York) as British subjects.

Boston Measles Epidemic in 1713

John Needham, an English biologist who would "prove" abiogenesis (life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter) works is born.

Queen Anne's War ends in 1713.

49

1714-18 Venice at war with Turkey

George, the German Elector of Hanover becomes King George I, of Britain ruling from 1714 to 1727

King James Authorized Version of the Bible published in Ireland

50

1715 Jacobite nobles lead uprisings in Scotland to try to put James Stuart (son of James II) on the throne. Five year old Louis XV of France succeeds his great grandfather, with the Duke of Orleans as regent.

November 13, 1715 the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland, defeat of the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

51

1716 The first certain account of plant hybridization was provided in a letter written by Cotton Mather, discussing the "infection" of Indian corn planted alongside yellow corn. The following year a British hybrid dianthus was described. In 1721 a hybrid cabbage was reported. By 1750 the controversy of sex in plants was in the news. By 1760 plant hybridization was a professional occupation. The study, hybridization, and selection of corn continued. By 1969 scientists understood more about corn genetics than the genetics of any other flowering plant.

52

1717 Innoculation against smallpox instituted in England by Lady Mary Montague after she returns from Turkey, where it was in a popular experimental stage at the time

53

1718 Blackbeard the pirate dies.

1718 Pierre, Duque de Boisbriant appointed first commandant of Illinois by the French.

Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary in 1718, much less bulky than Reims- Douay

In November the only son of Peter the Great of Russia dies.

The initial shipment of American ginseng (sent from Canada) arrived in China (Canton). In 1773 shipment began from Boston, with a load of 55 tons on the Hingham. That shipment is said to have earned nearly three dollars a pound, which would have made for substantially profitable cargo. The potential of monetary gain created a strong supply network of North American "seng diggers." Philadelphia records from 1788 indicate that Daniel Boone sold 15 tons of ginseng root to merchants there. Given such levels of harvesting, the American ginseng (Panax quinqefolium) became rare in nature. By 1885 George Stanton had founded his 150-acre Ginseng Farm in New York.

54

1719 Outbreak of the plague in Marseilles, France through 1720.

1720's

55

1720 Fort de Chartres built by French north of Kaskaskia.

1720 Peter the Great of Russia signs treaty with the Chinese permitting trade. Japanese shogun Yoshimune repeals the laws against European books and study.

Area of Illinois was settled by 1720

Augsburg and Marienthal founded in Louisiana

French fries & ketchup introduced

56

Pope Innocent XIII

1721 In the United States, a clergyman named Cotton Mather attempts to introduce a crude form of smallpox vaccination by smearing smallpox pus into scratches in healthy people. Over 220 people are treated during the first six months of experimentation. Only six had no apparent reaction.

1721 Under the Treaty of Uusikaupunki (Nystad) Sweden cedes south-eastern Finland and the Baltic provinces of Livonia, Estonia and Ingria to Russia.

1721-1724 Pope Innocent XIII

57

1722 First church and first stone residence erected at Kaskaskia, in present day Randolph County, in southwestern Illinois.

1722 In Wales, a Dr. Wright refers to inoculation against smallpox in the British Isles as "an ancient practice". A citizen of Wales, 99 years old, states that innoculation had been known and used during his entire lifetime, and that his mother stated it was common during her life, and that she got smallpox through her "innoculation".

Peter the Great of Russia issues an edict saying that the ruler of Russia shall choose his own successor. He established the Table of Ranks which determined a person's position and status according to service to the Emperor (tsar or czar) rather than according to birth or seniority

58

1723 First record of smallpox immunization in Ireland, when a doctor in Dublin inoculates 25 people. Three died, and the custom was briefly abandoned.

59

1724 First record of vaccination for smallpox in Germany. It soon fell into disfavor due to the number of deaths. Years later, doctors were able to reintroduce it.

1724 Most Tulpehocken Delaware inidans migrate to Ohio Valley.

1724-1730 Pope Benedict XIII

Area of Vermont settled by 1724

Pope Benedict XIII

Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle is appointed secretary of state for the British ministry's southern department, with responsibility to supervise the American colonies. His policy is known as "solitary neglect."

60

1725 Catherine I of Russia takes the throne at her husbands death.

Chief Chicagou sent to France by French settlers of Illinois.

Louis XV of France marries Marie Leszczynska, daughter of the King of Poland.

The Academy of Sciences is founded.

61

1726 Johnathan Swift publishes "Guliver's Travels"

62

1727 Coffee planted in Brazil.

1727-1760 George II King of Great Britain crowned.

A Shawnee band migrates from the upper Delaware Valley to the Ohio country.

Area of Kansas settled by 1727

Area of West Virginia settled by 1727

Catherine I of Russia dies, and the grandson of her husband is put on the throne.

Death of Sir Issac Newton on March 31, 1727.

George II succeeds his father George I June 11, 1727

63

1728 Seventh-Day Adventists under Conrad Beissel build Ephrata Cloisters in Pennsylvania

64

1729 Bach's St. Matthew Passion.

1729 Catherine the Great Empress of all the Russias

Boston Measles Epidemic

China banned opium in 1729. That ban on importation would be seriously compromised by the British East India Company until 1839.

Isaac Newton's Principia translated from Latin into English.

Lazzaro Spallanzani, who would attempt to prove that abiogenesis (life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter) doesn't work is born in 1729.

The Irish oat famine in 1729 engendered Jonathan Swift's famous pamphlet entitled "A Modest Proposal."

1730's

65

1730 French instigate a massacre of the Fox nation (The Meskwaki tribe of Native Americans which originally lived east of Michigan along the Saint Lawrence River) that reduced them as an independent force.

1730 Peter II of Russia dies of smallpox. Anna, the niece of Peter the Great, becomes Empress of Russia.

1730-1740 Pope Clement XII

Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham

66

His wife, Mary Eathorn Johns, died on November 20, 1731

Protestants were expelled from Salzburg, Austria, in 1731. They subsequently founded Ebenezer, Georgia.

67

1732-3 Worldwide Influenza Epidemic

Benjamin Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanack in 1732.

By 1732 the black slave population of South Carolina numbered about 32,000 as compared to approximately 14,000 whites. Slavery at this time in South Carolina was driven by rice cultivation. Rice seed imported from Madagascar was grown and harvested by black slaves from rice growing zones of Africa. Thus the early success in rice production in North America was possible due to a skilled, slave labor force.

Don Carlos of Bourbon becomes duke of Parma

J. S. Bach completed his Coffee Cantata in 1732. He stages a daughter making the humorous request

James Oglethorpe and others found Colony of Georgia by Royal Charter in 1732.

The first German-language newspaper, Philadelphische Zeitung, was published in the United States in 1732. German publishing flourished in Philadelphia and in smaller communities such as Ephrata, Pennsylvania.

68

1733 John Kay invents flying shuttle loom.

1733-1735

After Augustus II dies in 1733, his son (Augustus III) is elected ruler of Poland.

Area of Georgia settled by 1733

Area of Indiana settled by 1733

John Bartram of Philadelphia in 1733 began correspondence with Collinson, Miller, and others. Their exchange is the likely source of pawpaw, sourwood, and other American plants introduced to cultivation in Europe.

John Kay patented the fly-shuttle in 1733, which quickened the weaving of cloth, thus mechanizing weaving - while the generation of thread through spinning remained a cottage industry.

John Peter Zenger, who came to America as an indentured servant from the Palatinate region of Germany, founded a newspaper, The New-York Weekly Journal in 1733. Two years later he was acquitted in a landmark trial involving freedom of the press.

Schwenkfelders, a small American Christian body rooted in the 16th century Protestant Reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489Ð1561), from Silesia arrive in Pennsylvania in 1733. His ideas appear to be a middle ground between the ways of the Reformation of Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, and the Radical Reformation of the Anabaptists.

69

1734 A religious group of seeling religious freedom known as the "Salzburg Protestants ", because they came from the German city of Salzburg where they had been expelled by the local Catholic Archbishop there, come to Georgia

70

Area of Missouri settled by 1735

French scientist, La Codamine, is sent to Peru to measure one degree on the surface of the Earth.

The publisher of New-York Weekly Journal newspaper, John Peter Zenger, was acquitted of libel establishing freedom of the press

71

1736 - 1739 Russo-Turkish War, 1736-39

1736 Moravians found Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, PA

1736 Russo-Turkey war.

An alliance between the colony of Pennsylvania and the Iroquois grand council was signed in 1736.

Moravians (Herrnhuters) under Count Zinzendorf settle in Georgia

Nadir Shah, the last great Persian conqueror drove the Afghans from Iran and became king.

72

His child, George Johns, II, married Mary Cock Johns on January 29, 1737

1737 William Penn's sons dispossess the Delawares of the "forks of Delaware" by the Walking Purchase.

73

1738 Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley

1738 South Carolina Smallpox Epidemic

1738-1816 New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis Blyth O.D.C.

La Codamine returns to France.

William Johnson arrives in New York from Ireland in order to take charge of uncle Sir Peter Warren's New York estates.

74

"Germantauner Zeitung", the first hymnal in America, published in 1739 by Christopher Saur and Conrad Beissel at Ephrata, Pennsylvania

1739 - 1742 War of Jenkins' Ear

1739 About 500,000 people died in Ireland due, by one account, to widespread crop failure of potatoes. A more thorough account contends that the 1740-41 famine resulted from failure of the oat crop, accompanied by extremely cold weather in which stored potatoes were frozen in there outdoor pits, and therefore lost.

1739 Russo-Turkish war ends (temporarily).

1739-40 Boston Measles Epidemic

David Hume writes his most important work "A Treatise of Human Nature"

The "War of Jenkins's Ear," a trade war between Great Britain and Spain, developing due to British attempts to circumvent the Peace of Utrecht commences in 1739

War of Jenkin's Ear between Great Britain and Spain.

1740's

75

1740 - 1742 1st Silesian War

1740 - 1748 War of the Austrian Succession

1740 Frederick II (later called Frederick the Great) becomes ruler of Prussia.

1740 Smallpox epidemic in Berlin.

1740's Many Senecas and Cayugas indiana migrate from New England to the southern shores of Lake Erie and become known as Mingos.

1740-1758 Pope Benedict XIV

Anna of Russia dies in 1740, naming Ivan VI, the grandchild of her sister, as successor. Ivan VI's mother (also named Anna) is the regent for the baby emperor.

Capt. Vitus Bering, Dane employed by Russia, discovers Alaska.

Russians begin trading on what is now known as the British Columbian coast of southwest Canada

War of Austrian Succession commences after the death of Emperor Charles VI.

76

George Johns, I died on February 11, 1741

1741 Moravians founded Bethlehem and Nazareth, Pennsylvania.

1741 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great takes the Russian throne in 1731.

President Eisenhower's ancestor, Hans N. Eisenhauer, arrives in America

The President of the First Continental Congress, Henry Middleton, began creating his gardens at Middleton Place, South Carolina in 1741.

77

Around this time or maybe a year or so later Maria Theresa, daughter of Emperor Charles VI agrees to give Frederick the Great of Prussia the land he has captured from her during the past two years, in return for Frederick recognizing her claim to the Austrian throne.

From 1742-1745 Pehr Kalm explored North America, collecting plants for introduction to Sweden. His work resulted in a three volume publication, En Resa till Norra America, issued 1753-1761.

From Rio de Janeiro, the mango was introduced to the Barbados.

In 1742 Christopher Saur, a German printer in Philadelphia, printed the first Bible in America ... in German.

Start of the War of Austrian Succession in 1742

78

The Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria on June 27, 1743, was the last engagement in which a British monarch (King George II) participated in person.

79

1744 - 1745 2nd Silesian War

1744 - 1748 King George's War The North American part of the War of Austrian Succession

In January 1744 fifteen year old Sophie Auguste Frederika (later known as Catherine the Great), daughter of a petty Germany prince, leaves her home in Stettin to travel to Russia on invitation of the Empress Elizabeth.

King George's War between the British and French in North America begins in 1744 (Europeans referred to it as "The Austrian Succession") with the British & American Colonials against the French.

On March 15, 1744, during the third of four North American wars waged by the British and French, the Iroquois give the British permission to build a blockhouse at the Forks of the Ohio.

Treaty at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, between Iroquois nations of Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca, on the one side, and British colonies of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania on the other. - George Crogan establishes trading post at Mingo town of Cuyahoga. His soon becomes a political power among the Ohio Indians.

80

"Battle of Fontenoy" May 11 1745 in Flanders, French defeat combined army of British, Dutch and Austrian troops

George Montagu Dunk, second earl of Halifax, is appointed president of the lords commissioners for trade and plantations (board of trade)

Massachusetts governor William Shirley directs campaign that captures Louisbourg, but the fort is returned to the French by the peace treaty.

On August 25, 1745, the Grand-duke Peter of Russia marries Catherine (previously known as Sophie).

Prince Charles Edward Stuart raises the Highlanders in what is called the "Second Jocobite Rebellion" tries to put "Bonnie Prince Charles" on the throne of Scotland and England.

Royalist John Campbell, looses his army to Jacobite victory at the "Battle of Prestonpans" September 30, 1745

81

British defeat Scots under Stuart Pretender Prince Charles at Culloden Moor in 1746. It was the last battle fought on British soil.

Jacobite victory at the Battle of Falkirk on January 28, 1746. Earl Loudoun flees the "Rout of Moy" to the safety of Skye, and sits out the rest of the Jacobite rising

William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, defeats Scots rebels on April 27, 1746 at the "Battle of Culloden", braking the Jacobite Rebellion. He is made captain general of the British army.

82

His son, George Johns, II, died on May 17, 1747

1747 Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina Measles Epidemic

1747 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1747 Sweden begins construction of a fortress named Sveaborg, (lit. Castle of Sweden) on a group of islands off Helsinki. Later its name is changed to Suomenlinna (lit. Castle of Finland).

Battle of Lauffeld, British and Allied defeat July 2, 1747

Dr. James Lind experimented with 12 sailors who had scurvy and discovered that consuming lemons and oranges for 6 days effected great improvement. Nearly 50 years passed before the British admiralty required that sailors receive daily lemon or lime juice. Scurvy is understood now to be a nutritional disease caused by lack of adequate Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

Formation of the Ohio Company of Virginia October 24, 1747

Sugar beets introduced

83

Benjamin Franklin organizes a military association for Pennsylvania's defense.

Benjamin Franklin retires from management of his printing business in 1748

Conrad Weiser journeys to the Ohio country to make treaties with region's Indians August 11, 1748

In June 1748 William Johnson instigates a Mohawk raid against Montreal in defiance of Iroquois grand council's neutrality policy. The raiders are ambushed with great losses.

Shawnees and Iroquois grand council appoints Tanaghrisson as "Half King" over the Ohio Indians and gives Scarouady supervision over the Shawnees

War of the Austrian Succession (or King George's War in America) ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle October 18, 1748

84

Captain Céleron de Blainville leads an expedition to the Ohio country June 15 - November 9, 1749 to restore New France's authority, but fails in efforts.

François Piquet founds La Présentation June 1, 1749, a Sulpician mission Oswegatchie (Ogdensburg, N.Y.), it draws many Iroquois to the French

Halifax is established and constructed in Acadia [Nova Scotia] by the British as a counter measure to Fortress Louisbourg.

King George II orders grant to the Ohio Company March 16,1749

Ohio Company's petitions King George on January 11, 1749 for a grant of lands, and proposes to build a fort there

1750's

85

1750 Scandinavia experiences a 15 year epidemic of Pertussis (whooping cough) which takes 45,000 lives.

1750-51 La Galissonière, governor-general of New France, repeatedly warns the French ministry of two necessities

British build Fort Lawrence, French counter with Fort Beauséjour at disputed border between Nova Scotia and Acadia.

Grapefruit introduced

September 11, 1750 - March 29, 1752 Christopher Gist arranges for a treaty at Logstown (Ohio) for the British. William Johnson (New York's agent of Indian affairs) attempts to prevent Conrad Wiser (a German Pennsylvanian pioneer) from treating with the Iroquois. French raid against rebellious Shawnees fails to subdue them. Virginians make treaty with Ohio Indians at Logstown.

Slaves from Africa were traded for gold and rum. At the African source, one hundred gallons of rum would purchase a male slave, 85 gallons an adult woman, and 65 gallons a child. At the same time, the average selling price for a slave delivered to the West Indies was £20 sterling.

86

Johnson in July 1751 resigns post as New York's agent in charge of Indian affairs, is later elected a member of Pennsylvania assembly. Thomas Penn and brother refuse the assembly's unanimous request to contribute to expense of Indian affairs "or any other public expense."

Publication of the Encyclopédie begins in France, the "bible" of the Enlightenment.

Second Carnatic War of 1751, an unofficial war between the British East India Company and the French Compagnie des Indes.

87

1752 Britain adopts the Georgian calendar.

A party of Chippewas, Potawatomies, and Ottawas, led by Charles Langlade, attack the Indian village of Picawillany June 21, 1752, destroy Croghan's trading post, killing one British trader, and taking others prisoner.

Authorized Version of the Bible published in New World colonies in 1752

Benjamin Franklin invents the lightening conductor.

Marquis Duquesne arrives at Quebec in 1752 to be governor-general of New France. Commissioner William Shirley recalled from futile negotiations in Paris

William Law publishes, "The Way to Divine Knowledge."

88

April 10, 1753 William Trent sent a letter to Governor Hamilton stating that French and Mohawks had made an attack on 8 of George Croghan's and Lowery's Traders "at a place called Kentucky" and killing 3 of John Finley's men and the disappearance of Finley. This attack took place on January 26.

Benjamin Franklin is awarded the Coply gold medal of the Royal Society in 1753 for his experiments with electricity. He is appointed by the crown as deputy postmaster general of the British colonies in North America.

French troops dispatched from Canada February 1, 1753 take the Ohio Valley, and begin construction of three forts. Virginia Governor Hamilton receives a letter stating that French and Mohawks attacked a trading post of John Findly at a place called 'Kentucky'. George Washington is sent to the French commander in the Ohio country to protest their occupation of disputed lands.

Halifax Revives Britain's claim to the Ohio country through "right of conquest" by "subject" Iroquois.

In England land tax is instituted.

The French sent Pierre Paul Marin to establish a chain of forts from Presque Isle (Erie, Pennsylvania) south toward the forks of the Ohio River. Fort Presque Isle and Fort Le Bouef (present-day Waterford, in northwest Pennsylvania 15 miles from Lake Erie) were completed in 1753, Fort Machault at Venango were French Creek enters the Allegheny River in western Pennsylvania in 1754. From these points there was water transport to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

The supply road to French Creek, or Riviere aux Boeufs (River of the Buffaloes) as it was known to the French, was the first true road ever constructed in the midwest. Twenty one feet wide, it ran thirteen miles to Fort Le Bouef.

89

1754 - 1763 French and Indian War or the Seven Years' War

1754 Inoculation for smallpox introduced in Rome. The practice was soon stopped because ofthe number of deaths it caused. Later, the medical profession would successfully reintroduce it.

1754-1763 The French and Indian War (Europeans referred to it as "The Seven Year War,") with the British & Colonials vs French over the issue of boundaries. Over the next six years 11,000 Arcadians are deported from Canada.

April 1754 Ensign Ward surrenders to French Captain Contrecoeur, who completes building Fort Duquesne.

Captain Trent starts to build Virginia's fort at the point where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers join to make the Ohio. Ensign Ward is left in charge.

Commercial gelatin introduced

Grand-Duchess Catherine of Russia (later to be known as Catherine II, Empress of Russia) gives birth to a son not by the Grand Duke, but by Serge Saltykov, her lover, whom she described as "handsome as a god, and certainly no one could equal him in the Empress's court."

In December 1754 the British authorizes Massachusetts governor Shirley to raise troops.

In England, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufacturers is created.

In September 1754 the Board of Trade and Ministry discuss need for unified action by colonies. Ministry decides upon a military commander in chief to be financed by colonies. Cumberland nominates Edward Braddock.

July 28-29, 1754 Captain Stobo smuggles plans of French Fort Duquesne to Philadelphia through Delaware chiefs Shingas and Delaware George.

July 4, 1754 Washington surrenders encampment called Fort Necessity at Great Meadows after Tanaghrisson's Mingos desert in contempt of Washington's leadership. Captain Robert Stobo is taken by French as hostage.

Lieutenant Colonel George Washington leads a party of Virginians and Mingo indians on May 28, 1754 to attack a French party under Ensign Coulon de Jumonville, who is killed under circumstances called "assassination" by the French.

Newcastle becomes head of the ministry as first lord of the Treasury

Newcastle's inner cabinet resolves to defend Britain's northern colonies from French "invasion."

News of Washington's surrender of Fort Necessity (two months earlier) reaches London on September 8, 1754 and stimulates Newcastle to appeal for help from Cumberland.

St. Andrews Golf Club, is founded in Scotland.

The Albany Plan of

90

1755 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 60,000 (estimated at 8.75 Richter)

1755 Earthquake in Northern Persia kills 40,000

1755 Marie-Antoinette the Last Queen of France

After drilling his combined force at Fort Cumberland, Braddock marched into the Allegheny wilderness in June 1755. His advance was cautious and in good order, with the pioneers (engineers) hacking a road 12 feet wide through the virgin forest. Built on an old Indian trail, the road was widened and surfaced to accommodate both wagons and cannon. While the axe-men hacked the road, clearing as they went, often no more than four miles could be covered per day.

Genoa sells Corsica to France

In February of 1755 France sends seventy-eight companies to Canada. French ministry authorizes instigation of Indians against British colonies. English General Edward Braddock arrives in Williamsburg, Virginia. Braddock leads his troops into ambush and defeat by the French and their Indian allies near Fort Duquesne in the colonies. Then, William Johnson's colonial troops capture French commander Dieskau and prevent French expansion in the Champlain Valley around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York extending slightly into Quebec, Canada. French Fort Beauséjour is taken by the English forces.

In January of 1755 Britain sends two regiments of troops to Virginia.

In January the convention of Westminster is signed between Prussia and Hanover, that neither would allow the entry of a foreign army onto German soil.

In May the treaty of Versailles was signed between Austria and France.

Lisbon, Spain, 30,000 people die in earthquake.

On August 27, Frederick the Great led the armies of Prussia into Saxony, thus beginning the Seven Years War lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which Britain and Prussia defeat France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. France loses North American colonies; Spain cedes Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba. In India, over 100 British prisoners die in "Black Hole of Calcutta."

Postal service established throughout the American colonies in 1755.

Samuel Johnson's "Dictionary of the English Language" first published.

Sir. Charles Hanbury-Williams arrives in Russia and negotiates an agreement between England and Russia, that Russia would keep 50,000 men at the Livonian frontier, ready to march into Prussia, in return for England paying £100,000 a year, and more if the soldiers are ever used.

The British build and launch their first navel vessel on Lake Ontario on June 27, 1755, a move suggested by Benjamin Franklin.

91

"The Seven Years' War" (1756-63) officially began on August 29, 1756, when Frederick of Prussia invades the German State of Saxony. This war, which was a widening of the conflict between Britain and France in North America, became a world conflict. The combatants included Prussia and Hanover on the British side against Austria, Russia, Saxony, Spain and Sweden with France.

1756 - 1763 Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in the United States, and also 3rd Silesian War

1756 The British government purchased the right to export 600,000 Russian trees each year to supply the Royal Navy.

1756 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria.

French capture Minorca May 28, 1756. Britain declares war on France, fighting on two fronts in India and North America.

Mayonnaise & Tartar sauce introduced

The governor of Pennsylvania offers a bounty of 130 Spanish dollars for "the scalp of every male Indian enemy above the age of twelve years produced as evidence of their being killed".

92

British Fort William Henry in upstate New York was captured and destroyed by the French August 9, 1757. The Marquis de Montcalm captures and destroys the fort at the southern end of Lake George.

Russia signs onto the treaty of Versailles, which Austria and France had signed the year before and in August a Russian army attacks East Prussia.

The British East India Company gained control of Bengal after Robert Clive won the Battle of Plassey on June 23, 1757 with a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies, establishing Company rule in South Asia which expanded over much of the Indies for the next 190 years thus beginning the British Empire in India.

William Pitt becomes Prim Minister in the summer of 1757. Pitt's rise to power came too late to change the tide of English losses in 1757. During the winter of 1757 - 1758, he pushed the preparations for the final defeat of the French in North America. Soon his fleets and armies were striking everywhere in Europe, India, Africa and hardest hit, the French in North America. His grand plan to defeat France included the capture of Louisbourg, and Forts Ticonderoga and Duquesne. All English forces are then to converge on the last target, Quebec.

93

1758-1769 Pope Clement XIII

Appearance of Halley's comet.

August 1, 1758 Battle of Minden in Germany. An army fielded by the Anglo-German alliance commanded by Field Marshal Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, defeated a French army commanded by Marshal of France Louis, Marquis de Contades. Prince Ferdinand's army suffered 2,800 fatalities while the French lost between 10,000 and 11,000 men. In the wake of the battle the French retreated southwards to Kassel (the boyhood home of Matthaeus Nading who would be 2 years old at this time). The defeat ended the French threat to Hanover for the remainder of that year.

Augustus III, king of Poland, requests from the Russian Empress Elizabeth that his son Charles, be given the Dukedom of Courland on the Baltic Sea between Prussia and Russia. Elizabeth agrees to the request.

Fort Duquesne is abandoned and burned by the French, the English begin construction of Fort Pitt near the site (present day Pittsburg, Pennsylviania). The Easton treaty is signed between the Pennsylvania colonial government and the Delawares, thus settling boundary questions

July 1758 the first British troops dispatched to Germany under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick.

Pope Clement XIII

The French fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia, Canada, falls to the American and British attackers on after a seven week siege which ended on July 26, 1758.

94

1759 North American areas inhabited by white people experience a Measles Epidemic

1759 The Duke of Bridgewater builds a seven and a half miles long canal between his mines and Manchester (thus lowering the cost of his coal and demonstrating to the rest of Britian of the importance of canals).

Haydn's Symphony No. 1.

Voltaire's Candide.

1760's

95

1760-1820 George III King of Great Britain crowned

Amherst captures Montreal and ends French resistance in Canada. Northwestern Territory (including Illinois) ceded to England by France September 8, 1760

Battle of Warburg in Germany July 31st was a victory for the Hanoverians and the British against the French. British general John Manners, Marquess of Granby, achieved some fame for charging at the head of the British cavalry and losing his hat and wig during the charge. The French lost 1500 men, killed and wounded, around 2,000 prisoners and ten pieces of artillery.

Between 1760 and 1770 20,000 Irish workers emigrated from seaports at Ulster. Most of these people moved to North America, voyaging on the same ships that brought flax from the new world to linen mills in Ulster. Many of the emigrants were skilled linen weavers. A sharp decline in the linen market in 1770 exacerbated the situation, and over 30,000 additional people emigrated in the first half of that decade.

Death of King George II on October 25, 1760, he is succeeded by his grandson, George III.

Francis Nixon, an Irishman, comes up with a way to print chintz (brightly colored cloth) using copperplates.

Mid September, Fort Detroit surrenders to Colonel Robert Rogers. The British flag is raised over Detroit, signaling the end of the French and Indian War. General Amherst forbids presents of food and arms to Indians. - Senecas present a war belt to Detroit Indians, but it is rejected and disclosed to the fort commander.

A Russian poet scientist, Mikhail Lomonosov, discovers the atmosphere of Venus.

Agricultural machines are displayed in London in an exhibition by the 1761 Society of Arts.

By this year British land grants in New England required that pine trees, most notably white pine, that were suitable as ship masts be conserved to be cut only under license by the crown. Appointed surveyors marked trees to be protected with the "king's broad arrow," a triangular scar. This decree, among many others, greatly perturbed American colonists. The first flag used by Revolutionaries bore the image of a single white pine - representing the state of Massachusetts.

John Hill established an association between tobacco snuff and malignant (and fatal) nose polyps in 1761.

Kölreuter reported his work on the role of insects in pollination. His detailed descriptions of insect activity and floral structure instructed botanists on the mechanisms and significance of insect pollination, and led directly to the work of Sprengel.

North America and West Indies Influenza Epidemic of 1761

1762 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1762-1796 Catherine II ("the Great") becomes czarina of Russia.

Battle of Wilhelmstahl in Germany - Once again, the French threatened Hanover, hoping to occupy the Electorate and use it as a bargaining counter to exchange for the return of French colonies captured by the British. So the British and Prussian Allies manoeuvered around the French, surrounded the invasion force, and forced them to retreat. It was the last major action fought by Brunswick's force before the Peace of Paris brought an end to the war.

British Major Henry Gladwin takes command of Detroit on August 23, 1762.

In June of 1762 with the allied forces surrounding Prussia's army, the Russian empress Elizabeth dies. Peter III takes over Russia and immediately pulls out of the war. This turn of fate saved Britain and Prussia and allowed them to sign a peace treaty.

In Scotland, cast iron is converted into malleable iron for the first time at the ironworks in Stirlingshire

Jean Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. According to Rousseau, by joining together into civil society through the social contract and abandoning their claims of natural right, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. This is because submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law.

Mozart tours Europe as six-year-old prodigy.

The French government sets up a special section of the Gobelins tapestry factory to produce Chinese and Japanese fakes, since the demand for Chinese and Japanese goods were draining the country of gold.

The Sorbonne Library first opens in Paris

War Britian and Spain breaks out. Sweden and Prussia sign a Treaty of Hamburg, Prussia and Austria sign alliance. Martinique, Grenada, Havana and Manila captured by the British. British expedition captures Buenos Aries from Spain

War belts are circulated among western Indians, encouraged by Senecas and Frenchmen.

When Empress Elizabeth dies Peter III of Russia becomes ruler. He signs a document restoring to Prussia all the land Russia had taken from it in the past. His wife (who was also his second cousin), Catherine, along with her lover Grigori Orlov, planned to overthrow Peter, as she believed he would divorce her in order to marry his mistress Elisabeth Vorontsova. Within a 6 months he is overthrown by wife, Catherine the Great and her supporters.

1763 Epidemic of smallpox in France wipes out a large part of the population. It was immediately attributed to inoculation, and the practice was prohibited by the French government for five years.

August 1, 1763 Indians withdraw from siege of Fort Pitt.

August 6, 1763 British forces destroy Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in Penn Township, Westmoreland County, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The battle was a major victory for the British and enabled them to secure their control of the Ohio River Valley and what was to become the Northwest Territory.

Augustus III (also known as Frederick Augustus II) King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania dies October 5, 1763. During his 30-year reign, he spent less than a total of three years in Poland with his absence fostering internal political anarchy and further weakening the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

British government is provided for Quebec, Florida and Grenada by act of law

Catherine the Great of Russia takes the Dukedom of Courland away from Charles (son of Augustus III, king of Poland) and gives it instead to Biran.

Delawares, Hurons and Five Nations sue for peace August 12, 1763

Four days later on August 5, 1763 Colonel Bouquet fights off an indian attack at Bushy Run and forces attackers to withdraw.

French and Indian War ends. The Royal Proclamation renames the colony of Canada as the province of Quebec.

Hostage repartition between Indians and British completed November 28, 1763

Illinois is in area ceded by French to British after French and Indian War.

In the fall of 1763 Forts Pitt, Detroit and Niagara are strengthened against Indian Attack

New York and New Jersey Chambers of Commerce are formed.

November 17, 1763 Amherst embarks for England, he is succeeded as commander in chief by General Thomas Gage.

On May 9, 1763, Pontiac lays siege to Fort Detroit with a force composed of Ottawas, Chippawa, Potawatomi, Huron, Shawnee, and Delaware warriors. Indians near Detroit move east in force. Tribal allies destroy forts at Venango, LeBoeuf, and Presque Isle. Senecas wipe out a convoy near Niagara. Forts at Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Niagara hold out against besiegers.

On their own initiative, but with sanction from Amherst and Bouquet, the garrison at Fort Pitt start an epidemic in July of 1763 among the Indians by infecting besieging chiefs with blankets from the smallpox hospital.

Royal Proclamation recognizes aboriginal title and rights to land in 1763

The "St. James Chronicles" are published in London

The Ottawa Chief Pontiac, unites and leads the Indian nations of the Northwest Territory (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio) against the English.

The Proclamation Act of 1763 by King George III is announced by the English government to keep colonial settlers from moving into Indian territory west of the Appalachian Mountains.

The Treaty of Paris is signed February 10, 1763, officially ending the war between France and England, ending the Seven years War in Europe and in the American theatre, the French and Indian War. The treaty gave England title to virtually all North American territory east of the Mississippi River.

Treaty with Ottawas and Chippawas on September 7, 1763

Voltaire publishes "Treatise on Tolerance."

1764 Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick of Prussia sign an agreement to bring presure on the Polish diet to elect Stanislas Poniatowski as their new ruler. Stanislas is elected on September 7th.

After being overthrown by the Empress, Russian Czar Ivan VI spent the rest of his life as a prisoner and was killed by his guards on July 16, 1764, during an attempt made to free him.

Baker's chocolate introduced

By the end of 1764 British regain control of the Great Lakes.

Church lands are secularized in Russia 1764.

Early August, Bradstreet led expedition across Lake Erie, relieved Detroit and held councils with Indians.

Fort Niagara becomes the staging point for a spring expedition. British Regulars and Provincial troops gather there.

German Society for the Protection of Immigrants in Philadelphia established in 1764

In 1764, James Hargreaves's spinning jenny, a mechnical spinning wheel, made the thread generating process more efficient. Further improvements in bleaching and dyeing as well as the steam-powering of looms would change the British textile industry - with production soaring from 2.5 million pounds in 1760 to 22 million pounds in the 1780s.

In London houses are numbered for the first time. The London Literary Club is founded.

James Watt invents the condenser.

St. Louis (Missouri) first permanent settlement is established.

Britain imposes the Stamp Act on the American colonists. It required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, almanacs, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The act was enacted in order to pay for a portion of the costs of maintaining an army in the territories gained in North America during the (European) Seven Years'

Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two English surveyors lay down Mason-Dixon Line (1765 - 1767) resolving disputes between Pennsylvania, Maryland, Deleware, and Virginia.

Czarina Catherine the Great of Russia declares freedom of worship.

English take formal possession of Illinois on October 10, 1765.

Henry Cavendish discovers hydrogen is lighter than air.

James Watt invents the steam engine.

Pontiac treats with William Johnson for peace.

The Finnish-born clergyman and politician Anders Chydenius publishes his book "The National Gain" in which he proposes free trade, eleven years before the publication of Adam Smith´s Wealth of Nations.

The Pennsylvania Hospital (in Philadelphia) first institution in the U.S. exclusively for the care of the sick. Funded by voluntary subscriptions.

The Resolutions of the Stamp Act on October 19, 1765

The first paved sidewalk is finished in Westminster, London.

The oldest continually-operating theatre in England, Theatre Royal in Bristol, opened. The "Theatre in King Street" was built to designs by Thomas Paty between 1764 and 1766 on land behind and to one side of the Coopers' Hall, with a passage through one of the houses in front of it serving as an entranceway. The theatre opened on 30 May 1766 with a performance which including a prologue and epilogue given by David Garrick, an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson. As the proprietors were not able to obtain a Royal Licence, productions were announced as "a concert with a specimen of rhetorick" to evade the restrictions imposed on theatres by the Licensing Act 1737.

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