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The Life and Times of
Charles Atterbury

This Time Line of the life and times of Charles Atterbury is designed to include His primary personal and immediate family member life events (shown below in red) along with the context of universal cultural, social, political, military, economic, and health events of those times plus the concurrent technological innovations that may have impacted the lives of Charles Atterbury and His immediate family members during His lifetime. It is hoped that reviewing His known personal life events within the context of these other various contemporary influences upon His life will help you better understand and appreciate life and times of Charles Atterbury.

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1700's

1706 Coffee trees were sent to the botanical garden in Amsterdam from Sri Lanka (where the Dutch had only recently managed to establish plantations, breaking an ancient Arab monopoly). A single tree survived, which was the parent of a tree at the conservatory in Paris. In 1723, de Cliey carried a single offspring from the Paris tree to Martinique, which yielded thousands of trees there by 1777. The Martinique plantations became the source of the first plants to be taken to the various coffee-growing regions of South America.

French are defeated at the Battle of Ramillies near the Belgian village of Ramillies-Offus, forcing them to withdraw from the Netherlands on May 23, 1706

British defeat at Almanza in Spain April 25, 1707

The Act of Union in 1704 joins England, Wales, and Scotland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

British victory over French at Battle of Oudenarde on July 11, 1708 - later in September the British capture Minorca

Casseroles introduced

1709 Famine struck Europe, affecting Prussia on a great scale.

1709 Peter the Great of Russia defeats the Swedes at Poltava.

1709 Plague in Turkey, Russia, Scandinavia and Germany through 1710.

Battle of Malplaquet, September 11, 1709, French defeated in the bloodiest battle of the war at the French village of Malplaquetl

First mass emigration from the Palatinate (modern German areas)

1710's

1710 - 1711 Russo-Turkish War, 1710-11, a part of the Great Northern War

1710 Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber leads his clan into the area now called Kuwait and within the next twenty years establishes an unofficial rule.

650 Palatines and Swiss settle at New Bern, NC in 1710

Root beer introduced

Birth

Charles Atterbury born on December 07, 1711

1711 British forces, together with the American colonies, attempt to attack Quebec, but are discouraged when a storm in the St. Lawrence sinks nine of their ships.

Marlborough forces the "Non Plus Lines." August 05, 1711

1

1712 Captain Frezier introduced the Chilean strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis, to France. It arrived in Britain a few years later. This plant, along with the North American species taken to France by Jean Robin in 1624, is in the ancestry of today's commercial strawberries.

1712 First record of vaccinations for smallpox in France.

New York Slave Rebellion of 1712, in which Native and African slaves united.

2

April 11, 1713 Peace of Utrecht signed, treaty of which recognizes Iroquois (several tribes of indigenous people of North America based mostly in present-day upstate New York) as British subjects.

Boston Measles Epidemic in 1713

John Needham, an English biologist who would "prove" abiogenesis (life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter) works is born.

Queen Anne's War ends in 1713.

3

1714-18 Venice at war with Turkey

George, the German Elector of Hanover becomes King George I, of Britain ruling from 1714 to 1727

King James Authorized Version of the Bible published in Ireland

4

1715 Jacobite nobles lead uprisings in Scotland to try to put James Stuart (son of James II) on the throne. Five year old Louis XV of France succeeds his great grandfather, with the Duke of Orleans as regent.

November 13, 1715 the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland, defeat of the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

5

1716 The first certain account of plant hybridization was provided in a letter written by Cotton Mather, discussing the "infection" of Indian corn planted alongside yellow corn. The following year a British hybrid dianthus was described. In 1721 a hybrid cabbage was reported. By 1750 the controversy of sex in plants was in the news. By 1760 plant hybridization was a professional occupation. The study, hybridization, and selection of corn continued. By 1969 scientists understood more about corn genetics than the genetics of any other flowering plant.

6

1717 Innoculation against smallpox instituted in England by Lady Mary Montague after she returns from Turkey, where it was in a popular experimental stage at the time

7

1718 Blackbeard the pirate dies.

1718 Pierre, Duque de Boisbriant appointed first commandant of Illinois by the French.

Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary in 1718, much less bulky than Reims- Douay

In November the only son of Peter the Great of Russia dies.

The initial shipment of American ginseng (sent from Canada) arrived in China (Canton). In 1773 shipment began from Boston, with a load of 55 tons on the Hingham. That shipment is said to have earned nearly three dollars a pound, which would have made for substantially profitable cargo. The potential of monetary gain created a strong supply network of North American "seng diggers." Philadelphia records from 1788 indicate that Daniel Boone sold 15 tons of ginseng root to merchants there. Given such levels of harvesting, the American ginseng (Panax quinqefolium) became rare in nature. By 1885 George Stanton had founded his 150-acre Ginseng Farm in New York.

8

1719 Outbreak of the plague in Marseilles, France through 1720.

1720's

9

1720 Fort de Chartres built by French north of Kaskaskia.

1720 Peter the Great of Russia signs treaty with the Chinese permitting trade. Japanese shogun Yoshimune repeals the laws against European books and study.

Area of Illinois was settled by 1720

Augsburg and Marienthal founded in Louisiana

French fries & ketchup introduced

10

Pope Innocent XIII

1721 In the United States, a clergyman named Cotton Mather attempts to introduce a crude form of smallpox vaccination by smearing smallpox pus into scratches in healthy people. Over 220 people are treated during the first six months of experimentation. Only six had no apparent reaction.

1721 Under the Treaty of Uusikaupunki (Nystad) Sweden cedes south-eastern Finland and the Baltic provinces of Livonia, Estonia and Ingria to Russia.

1721-1724 Pope Innocent XIII

11

1722 First church and first stone residence erected at Kaskaskia, in present day Randolph County, in southwestern Illinois.

1722 In Wales, a Dr. Wright refers to inoculation against smallpox in the British Isles as "an ancient practice". A citizen of Wales, 99 years old, states that innoculation had been known and used during his entire lifetime, and that his mother stated it was common during her life, and that she got smallpox through her "innoculation".

Peter the Great of Russia issues an edict saying that the ruler of Russia shall choose his own successor. He established the Table of Ranks which determined a person's position and status according to service to the Emperor (tsar or czar) rather than according to birth or seniority

12

1723 First record of smallpox immunization in Ireland, when a doctor in Dublin inoculates 25 people. Three died, and the custom was briefly abandoned.

13

1724 First record of vaccination for smallpox in Germany. It soon fell into disfavor due to the number of deaths. Years later, doctors were able to reintroduce it.

1724 Most Tulpehocken Delaware inidans migrate to Ohio Valley.

1724-1730 Pope Benedict XIII

Area of Vermont settled by 1724

Pope Benedict XIII

Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle is appointed secretary of state for the British ministry's southern department, with responsibility to supervise the American colonies. His policy is known as "solitary neglect."

14

1725 Catherine I of Russia takes the throne at her husbands death.

Chief Chicagou sent to France by French settlers of Illinois.

Louis XV of France marries Marie Leszczynska, daughter of the King of Poland.

The Academy of Sciences is founded.

15

1726 Johnathan Swift publishes "Guliver's Travels"

16

1727 Coffee planted in Brazil.

1727-1760 George II King of Great Britain crowned.

A Shawnee band migrates from the upper Delaware Valley to the Ohio country.

Area of Kansas settled by 1727

Area of West Virginia settled by 1727

Catherine I of Russia dies, and the grandson of her husband is put on the throne.

Death of Sir Issac Newton on March 31, 1727.

George II succeeds his father George I June 11, 1727

17

1728 Seventh-Day Adventists under Conrad Beissel build Ephrata Cloisters in Pennsylvania

18

1729 Bach's St. Matthew Passion.

1729 Catherine the Great Empress of all the Russias

Boston Measles Epidemic

China banned opium in 1729. That ban on importation would be seriously compromised by the British East India Company until 1839.

Isaac Newton's Principia translated from Latin into English.

Lazzaro Spallanzani, who would attempt to prove that abiogenesis (life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter) doesn't work is born in 1729.

The Irish oat famine in 1729 engendered Jonathan Swift's famous pamphlet entitled "A Modest Proposal."

1730's

19

1730 French instigate a massacre of the Fox nation (The Meskwaki tribe of Native Americans which originally lived east of Michigan along the Saint Lawrence River) that reduced them as an independent force.

1730 Peter II of Russia dies of smallpox. Anna, the niece of Peter the Great, becomes Empress of Russia.

1730-1740 Pope Clement XII

Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham

20

Protestants were expelled from Salzburg, Austria, in 1731. They subsequently founded Ebenezer, Georgia.

21

1732-3 Worldwide Influenza Epidemic

Benjamin Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanack in 1732.

By 1732 the black slave population of South Carolina numbered about 32,000 as compared to approximately 14,000 whites. Slavery at this time in South Carolina was driven by rice cultivation. Rice seed imported from Madagascar was grown and harvested by black slaves from rice growing zones of Africa. Thus the early success in rice production in North America was possible due to a skilled, slave labor force.

Don Carlos of Bourbon becomes duke of Parma

J. S. Bach completed his Coffee Cantata in 1732. He stages a daughter making the humorous request

James Oglethorpe and others found Colony of Georgia by Royal Charter in 1732.

The first German-language newspaper, Philadelphische Zeitung, was published in the United States in 1732. German publishing flourished in Philadelphia and in smaller communities such as Ephrata, Pennsylvania.

22

1733 John Kay invents flying shuttle loom.

1733-1735

After Augustus II dies in 1733, his son (Augustus III) is elected ruler of Poland.

Area of Georgia settled by 1733

Area of Indiana settled by 1733

John Bartram of Philadelphia in 1733 began correspondence with Collinson, Miller, and others. Their exchange is the likely source of pawpaw, sourwood, and other American plants introduced to cultivation in Europe.

John Kay patented the fly-shuttle in 1733, which quickened the weaving of cloth, thus mechanizing weaving - while the generation of thread through spinning remained a cottage industry.

John Peter Zenger, who came to America as an indentured servant from the Palatinate region of Germany, founded a newspaper, The New-York Weekly Journal in 1733. Two years later he was acquitted in a landmark trial involving freedom of the press.

Schwenkfelders, a small American Christian body rooted in the 16th century Protestant Reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489Ð1561), from Silesia arrive in Pennsylvania in 1733. His ideas appear to be a middle ground between the ways of the Reformation of Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, and the Radical Reformation of the Anabaptists.

23

1734 A religious group of seeling religious freedom known as the "Salzburg Protestants ", because they came from the German city of Salzburg where they had been expelled by the local Catholic Archbishop there, come to Georgia

24

His mother, Sarah Rogers Atterbury, died during 1735

Area of Missouri settled by 1735

French scientist, La Codamine, is sent to Peru to measure one degree on the surface of the Earth.

The publisher of New-York Weekly Journal newspaper, John Peter Zenger, was acquitted of libel establishing freedom of the press

25

1736 - 1739 Russo-Turkish War, 1736-39

1736 Moravians found Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, PA

1736 Russo-Turkey war.

An alliance between the colony of Pennsylvania and the Iroquois grand council was signed in 1736.

Moravians (Herrnhuters) under Count Zinzendorf settle in Georgia

Nadir Shah, the last great Persian conqueror drove the Afghans from Iran and became king.

26

1737 William Penn's sons dispossess the Delawares of the "forks of Delaware" by the Walking Purchase.

27

1738 Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley

1738 South Carolina Smallpox Epidemic

1738-1816 New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis Blyth O.D.C.

La Codamine returns to France.

William Johnson arrives in New York from Ireland in order to take charge of uncle Sir Peter Warren's New York estates.

28

"Germantauner Zeitung", the first hymnal in America, published in 1739 by Christopher Saur and Conrad Beissel at Ephrata, Pennsylvania

1739 - 1742 War of Jenkins' Ear

1739 About 500,000 people died in Ireland due, by one account, to widespread crop failure of potatoes. A more thorough account contends that the 1740-41 famine resulted from failure of the oat crop, accompanied by extremely cold weather in which stored potatoes were frozen in there outdoor pits, and therefore lost.

1739 Russo-Turkish war ends (temporarily).

1739-40 Boston Measles Epidemic

David Hume writes his most important work "A Treatise of Human Nature"

The "War of Jenkins's Ear," a trade war between Great Britain and Spain, developing due to British attempts to circumvent the Peace of Utrecht commences in 1739

War of Jenkin's Ear between Great Britain and Spain.

1740's

29

1740 - 1742 1st Silesian War

1740 - 1748 War of the Austrian Succession

1740 Frederick II (later called Frederick the Great) becomes ruler of Prussia.

1740 Smallpox epidemic in Berlin.

1740's Many Senecas and Cayugas indiana migrate from New England to the southern shores of Lake Erie and become known as Mingos.

1740-1758 Pope Benedict XIV

Anna of Russia dies in 1740, naming Ivan VI, the grandchild of her sister, as successor. Ivan VI's mother (also named Anna) is the regent for the baby emperor.

Capt. Vitus Bering, Dane employed by Russia, discovers Alaska.

Russians begin trading on what is now known as the British Columbian coast of southwest Canada

War of Austrian Succession commences after the death of Emperor Charles VI.

30

His father, William Atterbury, died during 1741

1741 Moravians founded Bethlehem and Nazareth, Pennsylvania.

1741 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great takes the Russian throne in 1731.

President Eisenhower's ancestor, Hans N. Eisenhauer, arrives in America

The President of the First Continental Congress, Henry Middleton, began creating his gardens at Middleton Place, South Carolina in 1741.

31

Around this time or maybe a year or so later Maria Theresa, daughter of Emperor Charles VI agrees to give Frederick the Great of Prussia the land he has captured from her during the past two years, in return for Frederick recognizing her claim to the Austrian throne.

From 1742-1745 Pehr Kalm explored North America, collecting plants for introduction to Sweden. His work resulted in a three volume publication, En Resa till Norra America, issued 1753-1761.

From Rio de Janeiro, the mango was introduced to the Barbados.

In 1742 Christopher Saur, a German printer in Philadelphia, printed the first Bible in America ... in German.

Start of the War of Austrian Succession in 1742

32

The Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria on June 27, 1743, was the last engagement in which a British monarch (King George II) participated in person.

33

1744 - 1745 2nd Silesian War

1744 - 1748 King George's War The North American part of the War of Austrian Succession

In January 1744 fifteen year old Sophie Auguste Frederika (later known as Catherine the Great), daughter of a petty Germany prince, leaves her home in Stettin to travel to Russia on invitation of the Empress Elizabeth.

King George's War between the British and French in North America begins in 1744 (Europeans referred to it as "The Austrian Succession") with the British & American Colonials against the French.

On March 15, 1744, during the third of four North American wars waged by the British and French, the Iroquois give the British permission to build a blockhouse at the Forks of the Ohio.

Treaty at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, between Iroquois nations of Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca, on the one side, and British colonies of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania on the other. - George Crogan establishes trading post at Mingo town of Cuyahoga. His soon becomes a political power among the Ohio Indians.

34

"Battle of Fontenoy" May 11 1745 in Flanders, French defeat combined army of British, Dutch and Austrian troops

George Montagu Dunk, second earl of Halifax, is appointed president of the lords commissioners for trade and plantations (board of trade)

Massachusetts governor William Shirley directs campaign that captures Louisbourg, but the fort is returned to the French by the peace treaty.

On August 25, 1745, the Grand-duke Peter of Russia marries Catherine (previously known as Sophie).

Prince Charles Edward Stuart raises the Highlanders in what is called the "Second Jocobite Rebellion" tries to put "Bonnie Prince Charles" on the throne of Scotland and England.

Royalist John Campbell, looses his army to Jacobite victory at the "Battle of Prestonpans" September 30, 1745

35

British defeat Scots under Stuart Pretender Prince Charles at Culloden Moor in 1746. It was the last battle fought on British soil.

Jacobite victory at the Battle of Falkirk on January 28, 1746. Earl Loudoun flees the "Rout of Moy" to the safety of Skye, and sits out the rest of the Jacobite rising

William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, defeats Scots rebels on April 27, 1746 at the "Battle of Culloden", braking the Jacobite Rebellion. He is made captain general of the British army.

36

1747 Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina Measles Epidemic

1747 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1747 Sweden begins construction of a fortress named Sveaborg, (lit. Castle of Sweden) on a group of islands off Helsinki. Later its name is changed to Suomenlinna (lit. Castle of Finland).

Battle of Lauffeld, British and Allied defeat July 2, 1747

Dr. James Lind experimented with 12 sailors who had scurvy and discovered that consuming lemons and oranges for 6 days effected great improvement. Nearly 50 years passed before the British admiralty required that sailors receive daily lemon or lime juice. Scurvy is understood now to be a nutritional disease caused by lack of adequate Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

Formation of the Ohio Company of Virginia October 24, 1747

Sugar beets introduced

37

Benjamin Franklin organizes a military association for Pennsylvania's defense.

Benjamin Franklin retires from management of his printing business in 1748

Conrad Weiser journeys to the Ohio country to make treaties with region's Indians August 11, 1748

In June 1748 William Johnson instigates a Mohawk raid against Montreal in defiance of Iroquois grand council's neutrality policy. The raiders are ambushed with great losses.

Shawnees and Iroquois grand council appoints Tanaghrisson as "Half King" over the Ohio Indians and gives Scarouady supervision over the Shawnees

War of the Austrian Succession (or King George's War in America) ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle October 18, 1748

38

Captain Céleron de Blainville leads an expedition to the Ohio country June 15 - November 9, 1749 to restore New France's authority, but fails in efforts.

François Piquet founds La Présentation June 1, 1749, a Sulpician mission Oswegatchie (Ogdensburg, N.Y.), it draws many Iroquois to the French

Halifax is established and constructed in Acadia [Nova Scotia] by the British as a counter measure to Fortress Louisbourg.

King George II orders grant to the Ohio Company March 16,1749

Ohio Company's petitions King George on January 11, 1749 for a grant of lands, and proposes to build a fort there

1750's

39

1750 Scandinavia experiences a 15 year epidemic of Pertussis (whooping cough) which takes 45,000 lives.

1750-51 La Galissonière, governor-general of New France, repeatedly warns the French ministry of two necessities

British build Fort Lawrence, French counter with Fort Beauséjour at disputed border between Nova Scotia and Acadia.

Grapefruit introduced

September 11, 1750 - March 29, 1752 Christopher Gist arranges for a treaty at Logstown (Ohio) for the British. William Johnson (New York's agent of Indian affairs) attempts to prevent Conrad Wiser (a German Pennsylvanian pioneer) from treating with the Iroquois. French raid against rebellious Shawnees fails to subdue them. Virginians make treaty with Ohio Indians at Logstown.

Slaves from Africa were traded for gold and rum. At the African source, one hundred gallons of rum would purchase a male slave, 85 gallons an adult woman, and 65 gallons a child. At the same time, the average selling price for a slave delivered to the West Indies was £20 sterling.

40

Johnson in July 1751 resigns post as New York's agent in charge of Indian affairs, is later elected a member of Pennsylvania assembly. Thomas Penn and brother refuse the assembly's unanimous request to contribute to expense of Indian affairs "or any other public expense."

Publication of the Encyclopédie begins in France, the "bible" of the Enlightenment.

Second Carnatic War of 1751, an unofficial war between the British East India Company and the French Compagnie des Indes.

41

1752 Britain adopts the Georgian calendar.

A party of Chippewas, Potawatomies, and Ottawas, led by Charles Langlade, attack the Indian village of Picawillany June 21, 1752, destroy Croghan's trading post, killing one British trader, and taking others prisoner.

Authorized Version of the Bible published in New World colonies in 1752

Benjamin Franklin invents the lightening conductor.

Marquis Duquesne arrives at Quebec in 1752 to be governor-general of New France. Commissioner William Shirley recalled from futile negotiations in Paris

William Law publishes, "The Way to Divine Knowledge."

42

April 10, 1753 William Trent sent a letter to Governor Hamilton stating that French and Mohawks had made an attack on 8 of George Croghan's and Lowery's Traders "at a place called Kentucky" and killing 3 of John Finley's men and the disappearance of Finley. This attack took place on January 26.

Benjamin Franklin is awarded the Coply gold medal of the Royal Society in 1753 for his experiments with electricity. He is appointed by the crown as deputy postmaster general of the British colonies in North America.

French troops dispatched from Canada February 1, 1753 take the Ohio Valley, and begin construction of three forts. Virginia Governor Hamilton receives a letter stating that French and Mohawks attacked a trading post of John Findly at a place called 'Kentucky'. George Washington is sent to the French commander in the Ohio country to protest their occupation of disputed lands.

Halifax Revives Britain's claim to the Ohio country through "right of conquest" by "subject" Iroquois.

In England land tax is instituted.

The French sent Pierre Paul Marin to establish a chain of forts from Presque Isle (Erie, Pennsylvania) south toward the forks of the Ohio River. Fort Presque Isle and Fort Le Bouef (present-day Waterford, in northwest Pennsylvania 15 miles from Lake Erie) were completed in 1753, Fort Machault at Venango were French Creek enters the Allegheny River in western Pennsylvania in 1754. From these points there was water transport to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

The supply road to French Creek, or Riviere aux Boeufs (River of the Buffaloes) as it was known to the French, was the first true road ever constructed in the midwest. Twenty one feet wide, it ran thirteen miles to Fort Le Bouef.

43

1754 - 1763 French and Indian War or the Seven Years' War

1754 Inoculation for smallpox introduced in Rome. The practice was soon stopped because ofthe number of deaths it caused. Later, the medical profession would successfully reintroduce it.

1754-1763 The French and Indian War (Europeans referred to it as "The Seven Year War,") with the British & Colonials vs French over the issue of boundaries. Over the next six years 11,000 Arcadians are deported from Canada.

April 1754 Ensign Ward surrenders to French Captain Contrecoeur, who completes building Fort Duquesne.

Captain Trent starts to build Virginia's fort at the point where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers join to make the Ohio. Ensign Ward is left in charge.

Commercial gelatin introduced

Grand-Duchess Catherine of Russia (later to be known as Catherine II, Empress of Russia) gives birth to a son not by the Grand Duke, but by Serge Saltykov, her lover, whom she described as "handsome as a god, and certainly no one could equal him in the Empress's court."

In December 1754 the British authorizes Massachusetts governor Shirley to raise troops.

In England, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufacturers is created.

In September 1754 the Board of Trade and Ministry discuss need for unified action by colonies. Ministry decides upon a military commander in chief to be financed by colonies. Cumberland nominates Edward Braddock.

July 28-29, 1754 Captain Stobo smuggles plans of French Fort Duquesne to Philadelphia through Delaware chiefs Shingas and Delaware George.

July 4, 1754 Washington surrenders encampment called Fort Necessity at Great Meadows after Tanaghrisson's Mingos desert in contempt of Washington's leadership. Captain Robert Stobo is taken by French as hostage.

Lieutenant Colonel George Washington leads a party of Virginians and Mingo indians on May 28, 1754 to attack a French party under Ensign Coulon de Jumonville, who is killed under circumstances called "assassination" by the French.

Newcastle becomes head of the ministry as first lord of the Treasury

Newcastle's inner cabinet resolves to defend Britain's northern colonies from French "invasion."

News of Washington's surrender of Fort Necessity (two months earlier) reaches London on September 8, 1754 and stimulates Newcastle to appeal for help from Cumberland.

St. Andrews Golf Club, is founded in Scotland.

The Albany Plan of

44

1755 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 60,000 (estimated at 8.75 Richter)

1755 Earthquake in Northern Persia kills 40,000

1755 Marie-Antoinette the Last Queen of France

After drilling his combined force at Fort Cumberland, Braddock marched into the Allegheny wilderness in June 1755. His advance was cautious and in good order, with the pioneers (engineers) hacking a road 12 feet wide through the virgin forest. Built on an old Indian trail, the road was widened and surfaced to accommodate both wagons and cannon. While the axe-men hacked the road, clearing as they went, often no more than four miles could be covered per day.

Genoa sells Corsica to France

In February of 1755 France sends seventy-eight companies to Canada. French ministry authorizes instigation of Indians against British colonies. English General Edward Braddock arrives in Williamsburg, Virginia. Braddock leads his troops into ambush and defeat by the French and their Indian allies near Fort Duquesne in the colonies. Then, William Johnson's colonial troops capture French commander Dieskau and prevent French expansion in the Champlain Valley around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York extending slightly into Quebec, Canada. French Fort Beauséjour is taken by the English forces.

In January of 1755 Britain sends two regiments of troops to Virginia.

In January the convention of Westminster is signed between Prussia and Hanover, that neither would allow the entry of a foreign army onto German soil.

In May the treaty of Versailles was signed between Austria and France.

Lisbon, Spain, 30,000 people die in earthquake.

On August 27, Frederick the Great led the armies of Prussia into Saxony, thus beginning the Seven Years War lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which Britain and Prussia defeat France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. France loses North American colonies; Spain cedes Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba. In India, over 100 British prisoners die in "Black Hole of Calcutta."

Postal service established throughout the American colonies in 1755.

Samuel Johnson's "Dictionary of the English Language" first published.

Sir. Charles Hanbury-Williams arrives in Russia and negotiates an agreement between England and Russia, that Russia would keep 50,000 men at the Livonian frontier, ready to march into Prussia, in return for England paying £100,000 a year, and more if the soldiers are ever used.

The British build and launch their first navel vessel on Lake Ontario on June 27, 1755, a move suggested by Benjamin Franklin.

45

"The Seven Years' War" (1756-63) officially began on August 29, 1756, when Frederick of Prussia invades the German State of Saxony. This war, which was a widening of the conflict between Britain and France in North America, became a world conflict. The combatants included Prussia and Hanover on the British side against Austria, Russia, Saxony, Spain and Sweden with France.

1756 - 1763 Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in the United States, and also 3rd Silesian War

1756 The British government purchased the right to export 600,000 Russian trees each year to supply the Royal Navy.

1756 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria.

French capture Minorca May 28, 1756. Britain declares war on France, fighting on two fronts in India and North America.

Mayonnaise & Tartar sauce introduced

The governor of Pennsylvania offers a bounty of 130 Spanish dollars for "the scalp of every male Indian enemy above the age of twelve years produced as evidence of their being killed".

46

British Fort William Henry in upstate New York was captured and destroyed by the French August 9, 1757. The Marquis de Montcalm captures and destroys the fort at the southern end of Lake George.

Russia signs onto the treaty of Versailles, which Austria and France had signed the year before and in August a Russian army attacks East Prussia.

The British East India Company gained control of Bengal after Robert Clive won the Battle of Plassey on June 23, 1757 with a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies, establishing Company rule in South Asia which expanded over much of the Indies for the next 190 years thus beginning the British Empire in India.

William Pitt becomes Prim Minister in the summer of 1757. Pitt's rise to power came too late to change the tide of English losses in 1757. During the winter of 1757 - 1758, he pushed the preparations for the final defeat of the French in North America. Soon his fleets and armies were striking everywhere in Europe, India, Africa and hardest hit, the French in North America. His grand plan to defeat France included the capture of Louisbourg, and Forts Ticonderoga and Duquesne. All English forces are then to converge on the last target, Quebec.

47

1758-1769 Pope Clement XIII

Appearance of Halley's comet.

August 1, 1758 Battle of Minden in Germany. An army fielded by the Anglo-German alliance commanded by Field Marshal Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, defeated a French army commanded by Marshal of France Louis, Marquis de Contades. Prince Ferdinand's army suffered 2,800 fatalities while the French lost between 10,000 and 11,000 men. In the wake of the battle the French retreated southwards to Kassel (the boyhood home of Matthaeus Nading who would be 2 years old at this time). The defeat ended the French threat to Hanover for the remainder of that year.

Augustus III, king of Poland, requests from the Russian Empress Elizabeth that his son Charles, be given the Dukedom of Courland on the Baltic Sea between Prussia and Russia. Elizabeth agrees to the request.

Fort Duquesne is abandoned and burned by the French, the English begin construction of Fort Pitt near the site (present day Pittsburg, Pennsylviania). The Easton treaty is signed between the Pennsylvania colonial government and the Delawares, thus settling boundary questions

July 1758 the first British troops dispatched to Germany under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick.

Pope Clement XIII

The French fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia, Canada, falls to the American and British attackers on after a seven week siege which ended on July 26, 1758.

48

1759 North American areas inhabited by white people experience a Measles Epidemic

1759 The Duke of Bridgewater builds a seven and a half miles long canal between his mines and Manchester (thus lowering the cost of his coal and demonstrating to the rest of Britian of the importance of canals).

Haydn's Symphony No. 1.

Voltaire's Candide.

1760's

49

1760-1820 George III King of Great Britain crowned

Amherst captures Montreal and ends French resistance in Canada. Northwestern Territory (including Illinois) ceded to England by France September 8, 1760

Battle of Warburg in Germany July 31st was a victory for the Hanoverians and the British against the French. British general John Manners, Marquess of Granby, achieved some fame for charging at the head of the British cavalry and losing his hat and wig during the charge. The French lost 1500 men, killed and wounded, around 2,000 prisoners and ten pieces of artillery.

Between 1760 and 1770 20,000 Irish workers emigrated from seaports at Ulster. Most of these people moved to North America, voyaging on the same ships that brought flax from the new world to linen mills in Ulster. Many of the emigrants were skilled linen weavers. A sharp decline in the linen market in 1770 exacerbated the situation, and over 30,000 additional people emigrated in the first half of that decade.

Death of King George II on October 25, 1760, he is succeeded by his grandson, George III.

Francis Nixon, an Irishman, comes up with a way to print chintz (brightly colored cloth) using copperplates.

Mid September, Fort Detroit surrenders to Colonel Robert Rogers. The British flag is raised over Detroit, signaling the end of the French and Indian War. General Amherst forbids presents of food and arms to Indians. - Senecas present a war belt to Detroit Indians, but it is rejected and disclosed to the fort commander.

50

A Russian poet scientist, Mikhail Lomonosov, discovers the atmosphere of Venus.

Agricultural machines are displayed in London in an exhibition by the 1761 Society of Arts.

By this year British land grants in New England required that pine trees, most notably white pine, that were suitable as ship masts be conserved to be cut only under license by the crown. Appointed surveyors marked trees to be protected with the "king's broad arrow," a triangular scar. This decree, among many others, greatly perturbed American colonists. The first flag used by Revolutionaries bore the image of a single white pine - representing the state of Massachusetts.

John Hill established an association between tobacco snuff and malignant (and fatal) nose polyps in 1761.

Kölreuter reported his work on the role of insects in pollination. His detailed descriptions of insect activity and floral structure instructed botanists on the mechanisms and significance of insect pollination, and led directly to the work of Sprengel.

North America and West Indies Influenza Epidemic of 1761

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1762 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1762-1796 Catherine II ("the Great") becomes czarina of Russia.

Battle of Wilhelmstahl in Germany - Once again, the French threatened Hanover, hoping to occupy the Electorate and use it as a bargaining counter to exchange for the return of French colonies captured by the British. So the British and Prussian Allies manoeuvered around the French, surrounded the invasion force, and forced them to retreat. It was the last major action fought by Brunswick's force before the Peace of Paris brought an end to the war.

British Major Henry Gladwin takes command of Detroit on August 23, 1762.

In June of 1762 with the allied forces surrounding Prussia's army, the Russian empress Elizabeth dies. Peter III takes over Russia and immediately pulls out of the war. This turn of fate saved Britain and Prussia and allowed them to sign a peace treaty.

In Scotland, cast iron is converted into malleable iron for the first time at the ironworks in Stirlingshire

Jean Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. According to Rousseau, by joining together into civil society through the social contract and abandoning their claims of natural right, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. This is because submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law.

Mozart tours Europe as six-year-old prodigy.

The French government sets up a special section of the Gobelins tapestry factory to produce Chinese and Japanese fakes, since the demand for Chinese and Japanese goods were draining the country of gold.

The Sorbonne Library first opens in Paris

War Britian and Spain breaks out. Sweden and Prussia sign a Treaty of Hamburg, Prussia and Austria sign alliance. Martinique, Grenada, Havana and Manila captured by the British. British expedition captures Buenos Aries from Spain

War belts are circulated among western Indians, encouraged by Senecas and Frenchmen.

When Empress Elizabeth dies Peter III of Russia becomes ruler. He signs a document restoring to Prussia all the land Russia had taken from it in the past. His wife (who was also his second cousin), Catherine, along with her lover Grigori Orlov, planned to overthrow Peter, as she believed he would divorce her in order to marry his mistress Elisabeth Vorontsova. Within a 6 months he is overthrown by wife, Catherine the Great and her supporters.

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1763 Epidemic of smallpox in France wipes out a large part of the population. It was immediately attributed to inoculation, and the practice was prohibited by the French government for five years.

August 1, 1763 Indians withdraw from siege of Fort Pitt.

August 6, 1763 British forces destroy Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in Penn Township, Westmoreland County, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The battle was a major victory for the British and enabled them to secure their control of the Ohio River Valley and what was to become the Northwest Territory.

Augustus III (also known as Frederick Augustus II) King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania dies October 5, 1763. During his 30-year reign, he spent less than a total of three years in Poland with his absence fostering internal political anarchy and further weakening the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

British government is provided for Quebec, Florida and Grenada by act of law

Catherine the Great of Russia takes the Dukedom of Courland away from Charles (son of Augustus III, king of Poland) and gives it instead to Biran.

Delawares, Hurons and Five Nations sue for peace August 12, 1763

Four days later on August 5, 1763 Colonel Bouquet fights off an indian attack at Bushy Run and forces attackers to withdraw.

French and Indian War ends. The Royal Proclamation renames the colony of Canada as the province of Quebec.

Hostage repartition between Indians and British completed November 28, 1763

Illinois is in area ceded by French to British after French and Indian War.

In the fall of 1763 Forts Pitt, Detroit and Niagara are strengthened against Indian Attack

New York and New Jersey Chambers of Commerce are formed.

November 17, 1763 Amherst embarks for England, he is succeeded as commander in chief by General Thomas Gage.

On May 9, 1763, Pontiac lays siege to Fort Detroit with a force composed of Ottawas, Chippawa, Potawatomi, Huron, Shawnee, and Delaware warriors. Indians near Detroit move east in force. Tribal allies destroy forts at Venango, LeBoeuf, and Presque Isle. Senecas wipe out a convoy near Niagara. Forts at Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Niagara hold out against besiegers.

On their own initiative, but with sanction from Amherst and Bouquet, the garrison at Fort Pitt start an epidemic in July of 1763 among the Indians by infecting besieging chiefs with blankets from the smallpox hospital.

Royal Proclamation recognizes aboriginal title and rights to land in 1763

The "St. James Chronicles" are published in London

The Ottawa Chief Pontiac, unites and leads the Indian nations of the Northwest Territory (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio) against the English.

The Proclamation Act of 1763 by King George III is announced by the English government to keep colonial settlers from moving into Indian territory west of the Appalachian Mountains.

The Treaty of Paris is signed February 10, 1763, officially ending the war between France and England, ending the Seven years War in Europe and in the American theatre, the French and Indian War. The treaty gave England title to virtually all North American territory east of the Mississippi River.

Treaty with Ottawas and Chippawas on September 7, 1763

Voltaire publishes "Treatise on Tolerance."

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1764 Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick of Prussia sign an agreement to bring presure on the Polish diet to elect Stanislas Poniatowski as their new ruler. Stanislas is elected on September 7th.

After being overthrown by the Empress, Russian Czar Ivan VI spent the rest of his life as a prisoner and was killed by his guards on July 16, 1764, during an attempt made to free him.

Baker's chocolate introduced

By the end of 1764 British regain control of the Great Lakes.

Church lands are secularized in Russia 1764.

Early August, Bradstreet led expedition across Lake Erie, relieved Detroit and held councils with Indians.

Fort Niagara becomes the staging point for a spring expedition. British Regulars and Provincial troops gather there.

German Society for the Protection of Immigrants in Philadelphia established in 1764

In 1764, James Hargreaves's spinning jenny, a mechnical spinning wheel, made the thread generating process more efficient. Further improvements in bleaching and dyeing as well as the steam-powering of looms would change the British textile industry - with production soaring from 2.5 million pounds in 1760 to 22 million pounds in the 1780s.

In London houses are numbered for the first time. The London Literary Club is founded.

James Watt invents the condenser.

St. Louis (Missouri) first permanent settlement is established.

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Britain imposes the Stamp Act on the American colonists. It required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, almanacs, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The act was enacted in order to pay for a portion of the costs of maintaining an army in the territories gained in North America during the (European) Seven Years'

Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two English surveyors lay down Mason-Dixon Line (1765 - 1767) resolving disputes between Pennsylvania, Maryland, Deleware, and Virginia.

Czarina Catherine the Great of Russia declares freedom of worship.

English take formal possession of Illinois on October 10, 1765.

Henry Cavendish discovers hydrogen is lighter than air.

James Watt invents the steam engine.

Pontiac treats with William Johnson for peace.

The Finnish-born clergyman and politician Anders Chydenius publishes his book "The National Gain" in which he proposes free trade, eleven years before the publication of Adam Smith´s Wealth of Nations.

The Pennsylvania Hospital (in Philadelphia) first institution in the U.S. exclusively for the care of the sick. Funded by voluntary subscriptions.

The Resolutions of the Stamp Act on October 19, 1765

The first paved sidewalk is finished in Westminster, London.

The oldest continually-operating theatre in England, Theatre Royal in Bristol, opened. The "Theatre in King Street" was built to designs by Thomas Paty between 1764 and 1766 on land behind and to one side of the Coopers' Hall, with a passage through one of the houses in front of it serving as an entranceway. The theatre opened on 30 May 1766 with a performance which including a prologue and epilogue given by David Garrick, an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson. As the proprietors were not able to obtain a Royal Licence, productions were announced as "a concert with a specimen of rhetorick" to evade the restrictions imposed on theatres by the Licensing Act 1737.

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Governor Murray of Quebec is replaced by Guy Carleton in 1766.

On March 18, 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and passed the Declaratory Act. One reason that the Stamp Act was repealed was the fact that George Grenville, the Prime Minister who had enacted the Stamp Acts, had been replaced by Rockingham. Rockingham was more favorable towards the colonies. Rockingham invited Benjamin Franklin to speak to Parliament about colonial policy, and he portrayed the colonists as in opposition to internal taxes (which were derived from internal colonial transactions) like the Stamp Act called for, but not external taxes (which were duties laid on imported commodities). Parliament then agreed to repeal the Stamp Act on the condition that the Declaratory Act was passed. On March 18, 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and passed the Declaratory Act. The Declaratory Act of 1766 asserted that Parliament had the absolute power to make laws and changes to the colonial government, "in all cases whatsoever", even though the colonists were not represented in the Parliament.

The area of modern Wisconsin settled by 1766

56

Soda water introduced

57

1768 - 1774 Russo-Turkish War, 1768-74

1768 Barbara Heck, German-lrish, founds first Methodist church in New York

1768 The medical profession in France is successful in re-instituting vaccination for smallpox.

1768-1774 Russo-Turkish War. Russians gain concessions from the Ottoman Empire by Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, making it the chief power in the Near East.

Captain James Cook leaves England for a three year exploration of the Pacific.

December 9, 1768 First English court estabished at Fort Charles.

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1769 Richard Arkwright invents a water frame to speed up the process of spinning threads an early step in the Industrial Revolution

1769-1775 Pope Clement XIV

Area of modern California settled by 1769

Area of modern Tennessee settled by 1769

Scottish inventor James Watt patents a practical steam engine.

Sweet oranges were established at San Diego mission. About 30 years later in 1804 the first sizeable citrus orchard in California was established at the San Gabriel mission.

1770's

59

1770's Captain Cook explores the West Coast of America

A major English romantic poet, William Wordsworth, is born April 7, 1770.

An entire year's supply of nutmeg and cloves was destroyed in Amsterdam with the goal of maintaining high prices. Beginning in the 17th century Dutch traders had gained control of spice production in the Moluccas (at the expense of the Portuguese). Short supply kept prices high enough to create fortunes.

Australia was "discovered" by the British (though the Dutch had already named the area New Holland and had experienced at least 15 landings since 1606.) James Cook set out in the Endeavor on a scientific mission in 1768, with the young naturalists Joseph Banks and Daniel Charles Solander, as well as artists. On 29 April 1770, the ship stood into Botany Bay, which Cook originally called Sting Ray Harbor; but, the great collection of new plants by Banks and Solander provoked him to change the name.

Boston Massacre caused the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War

Joseph Priestly coined the name "rubber" for the natural latex of the South American tree Hevea brasiliensis, noting it is "a substance excellently adapted to the purpose of wiping from paper the marks of a black lead pencil." Rubber was first introduced to Europe 4 years later in 1744 by Charles Marie de la Condamine.

Ludwig van Beethoven born December 17, 1770, born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in present-day Germany.

60

First steam powered vehicle.

61

1772 North America Measles Epidemic

An uprising against British authority in New England, the Pine Tree Riot, resulted from the levying of fines on a New Hampshire man for cutting what were determined to be the King's pines. At dawn the day after the trial, 20 men led by Mudgett with faces blackened with soot entered County Sheriff Benjamin Whiting's room and assaulted him and his Deputy John Quigly with tree switches. They gave him one lash for every tree for which they were being fined.

Joseph Priestley and Daniel Rutherford independently discover nitrogen.

Pennsylvania Germans form their own militias. Moravians found Schoenbrunn mission in Ohio

Poland is partitioned for the first time (also in 1793 and 1795), between Austria, Prussia, and Russia divide land and people of Poland, ending its independence. Austria annexes Galicia. There is a coup d'etat in Sweden.

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1773 Clement XIV dissolves Jesuits

1773-1775

Americans were displeased by a 3% tax imposed by the English Parliament on tea and other products. That small tax added to a 100% import duty that all English subjects already paid on tea, and led to an increase in smuggling of tea from Holland. Loss of business for the London-based John Company resulted in the Tea Act of 1773, which eliminated the 100% tax - meaning the Dutch would be undersold. Even though this change represented a savings for American tea drinkers, the monopoly granted to the John Company continued to carry a 3% tax for colonists who had no representation in Parliament.

The Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773. After officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor. The Tea Party was the culmination of a resistance movement throughout British America against the Tea Act. Protesters had successfully prevented the unloading of taxed tea in three other colonies (including Edenton, North Carolina), but in Boston, embattled Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson refused to allow the tea to be returned to Britain.

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1774-9 Spanish explorer Juan Perez sights Queen Charlotte Islands and visits off Vancouver Island

Area now known as Kentucky settled by 1774

First Continental Congress met at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia September 1, 1774 and drafts "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" publishing a list of rights and grievances and petitioning King George for redress of those grievances. Twelve colonies were represented (none from the "convict state" of Gerogia). The Congress also called for another Continental Congress in the event that their petition was unsuccessful in halting enforcement of the Intolerable Acts.

Louis XV of France dies and his grandson, Louis XVI is crowned.

Major General Gabriel Baron von Spleny crosses Galician-Polish frontier and carries out military occupation of "Austrian" Moldavia, later called Bukovina; serves as military governor until his replacement by General Karl von Enzenberg.

On July 21, 1774 Treaty of Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca between the Russian Empire (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774

The Quebec Act is passed, allowing for Catholics to hold office, re-establishing old boundaries of Canada, and allowing French law.

Warren Hastings, the first British governor-general of India took office.

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1775 - 1781 American Revolutionary War

1775-1783 American Revolutionary War

1775-1800 Pope Pius VI

By Treaty of Constantinople, Austria annexes Bukovina which serves as a land bridge connecting its provinces of Galicia and Transylvania.

Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death by Patrick Henry on March 23, 1775

Juan Francisco de Bodega y Quadra penetrates close to the Nass River in Canada

June 17, Battle of Bunker Hill just outside of Boston. While the result was a victory for the British, the battle demonstrated that relatively inexperienced colonial forces were willing and able to stand up to regular army troops in a pitched battle.

North America hit by an epidemic of unknown cause, especially hard in the north eastern colonies

One of the worst worldwide Influenza Epidemics occurred 1775-1776

Paul Revere/rode to alert patriots of British invasion.

Priestley discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

Second Continental Congress - delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States.

The American Revolution begins with battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge, near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America

The Declaration of Arms July 6, 1775

65

Small pox epidemic in Canada

Adam Smith publishes "Wealth of Nations."

American Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776. British colonies in America declare independance from England officially starting the American Revolution

Area of modern Arizona settled by 1776

As a part of the Great American Revolution Braunschweiger and Hessian troops land in Quebec (and introduce the decorated Christmas tree to North America). At the end of the war more than 10,000 remained in America (including Matthaeous Nading)

August 27, 1776 Battle of Long Island results in Washington being pushed back by combined British and Hessian forces (including Matthaeous Nading).

Declaration of Independence signed and enacted on July 2, but the 4th of July is when anouncement reached the public and is thus celebrated as Independence Day in the United States.

Edward Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"

Fragonard's Washerwoman.

France and Spain agreed in May of 1776 to provide one million livres in arms to the Americans who were fighting the British, their old enemies.

Gen. George Washington crosses the Delaware Christmas night surprising and routing the British and Hessian troops (including Matthaeous Nading) at Trenton.

Mozart's Haffner Serenade at age 20.

On August 26, 1776, the first pension legislation for the American colonies as a group was enacted. A resolution of the Continental Congress provided half pay for officers and enlisted men, including those on warships and armed vessels, who were disabled in the service of the United States and who were incapable of earning a living. The half pay was to continue for the duration of the disability.

San Francisco is founded in 1776 by Spanish officer Juan Bautista de Anza.

The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776

The Virginia Declaration of Rights June 12, 1776

Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"

Yankee Doodle

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Christopher Ludwig is the army's director of baking

Clark's conquest of Illinois in 1777

Gen. Nicholas Herkimer and the Germans of the Mohawk Valley defeat the British at Oriskany August 6, 1777. This was one the few battles in the war where almost all of the participants were North American

Gen. von Steuben trains American army

Major F. von Heer commands Gen. Washington's German body-guards

September 11 Battle of Brandywine Creek - The battle at Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, which was a decisive victory for the British, left Philadelphia, the revolutionary capital, undefended. The British captured the city on September 26, beginning an occupation that would last until June 1778.

The Articles of Confederation Nov. 15, 1777

The Works of Benjamin Franklin

Two battles on September 19 and October 7, resulting in surrender of British General Burgoyne at Saratoga, New York, are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. This ended the British campaign to divide New England from the southern colonies.

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1778 Danish physicians move to open two major vaccination houses in Denmark, by order of the King.

1778 In Italy, infants were inoculated by Neapolitan nurses without the knowledge of parents.

British Capt. James Cook discovers Hawaii.

Captain Cook charts Nootka Sound on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island in the Canadian province of British Columbia on his third expedition to the Pacific

Franz Mesmer uses hypnotism.

General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, a Prussian officer, became inspector general of the Continental Army at Valley Forge. Steuben spoke little English and he often yelled to his translator, "Here! Come swear for me!"

George Rogers Clark captures Kaskaskia and Cahokia from British on July 4, 1778. Virginia claims Illinois and later cedes land to United States in 1784.

Voltaire dies.

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Gen. von Steuben writes first handbook for U.S. Army

Jan Ingenhousz's Experiments upon vegetables showed that plants produce oxygen in sunlight and carbon dioxide in darkness. This work added to studies by his friend Priestley, but unlike Priestley, who was interested primarily in the nature of gases, Ingenhousz was concerned with the physiology of plants.

June 24 marks the start of the The Great Siege of Gibraltar, an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence. This was the largest action fought during the war in terms of numbers, particularly the Grand Assault of September 18, 1782. It was the longest siege endured by the British Armed Forces, as well as being one of the longest continuous sieges in history not ending until nearly 4 years later on February 7, 1783.

Opposing Austrian and Prussian armies came to a stalemate in Bohemia when both armies consumed the local potato stores to depletion. The resulting lack of food combined with cold weather forced a retreat of both sides. Today this War of Bavarian Succession is still sometimes called "The Potato War."

1780's

69

1780's Epidemics appear on the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada

A physician named Dr. James Baker met John Hannon on the banks of the Neponset River which forms the southern boundary of the city of Boston. Irishman John Hannon was penniless but was a skilled chocolatier, a craft which he had learned in England and which was, until then, exclusive to Europe. With the financial help of Baker, Hannon started the first chocolate factory in the US where he produced "Hannon’s Best Chocolate"

At the Battle of Camden on August 16, 1780, British forces under Lieutenant General Charles, Lord Cornwallis routed the American forces of Major General Horatio Gates about 6 miles north of Camden, South Carolina, strengthening the British hold on the Carolinas following the capture of Charleston.

Death of Empress Maria Theresa after a reign of forty years on November 29, 1780 resulted in the accession to the Austrian throne of Joseph II, an "enlightened monarch."

Englishman Philip Luckombe commented concerning Ireland that

James Watt invents a paper copier, using a special ink that stays wet for 24 hours, thus allowing someone to press another paper over it and copy the ink.

Steel pen points begin to replace quill feathers.

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Battle of Guildford Courthouse, in present day Greensboro, North Carolina, is considered decisive. Before the battle, the British appeared to have successfully reconquered Georgia and South Carolina with the aid of strong Loyalist factions, and thought that North Carolina might be within their grasp. In the wake of the battle, Greene moved into South Carolina, while Cornwallis chose to invade Virginia. These decisions allowed Greene to unravel British control of the South, while leading Cornwallis to Yorktown and surrender.

Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown on October 19, 1781 was a decisive victory by combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by the Comte de Rochambeau with the support from the French West Indies fleet of the Comte de Grasse, over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis's army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict.

Herschel discovers Uranus.

Immanuel Kant writes his "Critique of Pure Reason"

Los Angeles founded.

Patent of Toleration issued in 1781 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II of Austria granting freedom of worship to Protestants and Jews and opens the way for Protestant Germans from outside the Austrian Empire to settle within its territories. The Jews were required either to create German-language primary schools, or send their children to Christian schools.

The American as well as the British and Hessian armies pass through Moravian Salem, North Carolina where former Hessian soldier Matthaeous Nading had recently settled.

The Articles of Confederation drafted by the Second Continental Congress and ratified by the 13 colonies in March 1781 formed a loose union is created by the American "states". Nationalists led by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton felt that the Articles lacked the necessary provisions for a sufficiently effective government. There was no president or executive agencies or judiciary. There was no tax base. There was no way to pay off state and national debts from the war years.

Tomatoes in America introduced

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1782-1787 German Protestants exiled from the (German) provinces of Palatinate, Rhineland, and Württemberg settle in already-existing communities (in modern Romania) of Arbora, Tereblestie, Illischestie, Fratautz, Milleschoutz-Badeutz, Satulmare, Molodia, Rosch, Zuczka, Mitoka-Dragomirna, and Czernowitz.

Oliver Evans contracted to build a flour mill on Red Clay Creek, north of Wilmington, Delaware. His "improvements" produced the first automated mill. One person could run an automated mill and produce 20 barrels of flour in a day. Ordinary mills required one person for ten barrels.

Superintendent of Finance for the Confederation Robert Morris proposes the idea of decimalizing the American coinage, thereby making it the metric system. About a month later on February 21, 1782, the Continental Congress approved the resolution and established the Philadelphia mint to produce American coins.

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As many as 5,000 of the Hessian soldiers hired by Britain to fight in the Revolutionary War remained in America after the end of hostilities - including Matthaeous Nading.

Beethoven's first printed works.

Dover, DE ["extremely fatal"] Bilious Disorder Epidemic

Earthquake in Calabria, Italy kills 30,000 February 4, 1783

First German brass band founded in Philadelphia

In March 1783, General Washington used his influence to disperse a group of Army officers who had threatened to confront Congress regarding their back pay.

Joseph Michel and Jacques Étienne Montgolfier became the first human beings to fly with their invention of the hot air balloon.

On December 23, 1783, Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief to the Congress of the Confederation

The Treaty of Paris 1783 end American Revolutionary War

The Treaty of Paris formalizing the American independence and defining America's borders (generally being east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes) was signed on September 3, 1783, ratified by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, and by the King of Great Britain on April 9, 1784.

William Blake's first collection of poems, "Poetical Sketches," was published circa 1783.

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1784-1809 Germans from the Zips (Spiss in today's Slovakia) brought to Bukovina by Anton Manz who had gained concessions to exploit mineral deposits after silver, lead, iron, and copper had been discovered; miners settled in Jakobeni (1784), Kirlibaba (1797), Luisental (1805), and Freudental (1807); others put down roots in Stulpikany, Frassin, and Paltinossa. Manz provides housing and garden plots for those in his employ.

Area of modern Alaska settled by 1784

Crimea annexed by Russia.

German Society for the Protection of Immigrants founded in New York

Johann Jacob Astor (1763-1848) left his village of Waldorf in Germany and arrived in the United States in 1784 with $25 and seven flutes, and becomes the first multi-millionaire in the United States by building a fur-trading empire that extended to the Great Lakes region and Canada, and later expanded into the American West and Pacific coast. In the early 19th century he diversified into New York City real estate and opium trade, and later became a famed patron of the arts. At the time of his death in 1848, Astor was the wealthiest person in the United States, leaving an estate estimated to be worth at least $20 million. His estimated net worth would be equivalent to $110.1 billion in 2006 U.S. dollars, making him the fourth wealthiest person in American history.

John Wesley's Deed of Declaration, the basic work of Methodism.

Lollipops introduced

The Federalist Papers

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Edmund Cartwright invents a power loom.

First Federal grant made. Land was allocated for establishing public schools in the Northwest Territory. The territory included all the land of the United States west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota.

Maritime trading voyages begin along Pacific coast (to 1820s)

Russians settle Aleutian Islands.

The Charter of the Cities and the Charter of the Nobility are issued in Imperial Russia. The Charter to the Nobility confirmed the liberation of the nobles from compulsory service and gave them personal rights that not even the autocracy could infringe. The Charter to the Towns that established self-government of the towns proved complicated and ultimately less successful than the one issued to the nobles.

The Memorial and Remonstrance June 20, 1785

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Prussia's Frederick the Great recognizes the independent USA

The Annapolis Convention Sept. 14, 1786

The British government announces it's plans to make Australia a penal colony.

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1787 - 1792 Russo-Turkish War, 1787-92

1787-1792 Catherine II's second war against the Ottoman Empire ending in further encroachments by Russia at the expense of the Turks by the Treaty of Jassy.

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier's (1743-1794) wrote his "Method of Chemical Nomenclature," in 1787 on chemical nomenclature. A French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass,[2] recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), abolished the phlogiston theory, helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. At the height of the French Revolution on May 8, 1794, he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling watered-down tobacco, and of other crimes, and was guillotined.

Captain George Dixon meets Haida (an indigenous nation of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America) and names the Queen Charlotte Islands off the western coast of Canada

First state admitted into the union, Delaware Dec. 7, 1787, having been settled by 1638

French physicist Jacques Charles discovers "Charles Law" describing the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.

Letter of Transmittal of the U.S. Constitution Sept. 17, 1787

Mozart's "Don Giovanni." Although sometimes classified as comic opera, it blends comedy, melodrama and supernatural elements.

Northwest Ordinance adopted by Continental Congress July 13, 1787 endowed States and territorial universities with land grants. Determined government of Northwest Territory north of Ohio River, west of New York. Any area with 60,000 inhabitants could get statehood. Guaranteed freedom of religion, support for schools, no slavery.

Second state admitted into the union, Pennsylvania Dec. 12, 1787, having been settled by 1682

The Constitution of the United States 1787

The Constitution of the United States was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in each U.S. state in the name of "The People".

The Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787

The first successful trial run of a steamboat had been made by inventor John Fitch on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of delegates from the Constitutional Convention. It was propelled by a bank of oars on either side of the boat.

Third state admitted into the union, New Jersey Dec. 18, 1787, having been settled by 1660

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Alaska is claimed as Russian territory

Area of Iowa (still under French ownership and control) settled by 1788

Area of Ohio settled by 1788

Eighth state admitted into the union, South Carolina May 23, 1788, having been settled by 1670

Eleventh state admitted into the union, New York July 26, 1788, having been settled by 1614

Fifth state admitted into the union, Connecticut Jan. 9, 1788, having been settled by 1634

Fourth state admitted into the union, Georgia Jan. 2, 1788, having been settled by 1733

French Parlement presents grievances to Louis XVI who agrees to convening of Estates-General in 1789 which had not been called since 1613.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Egmont." This play is a portrait of the downfall of a man who trusts in the goodness of those around him.

Nineth state admitted into the union, New Hampshire June 21, 1788, having been settled by 1623

Philadelphia and New York Measles Epidemic

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace's (1749-1827) "Laws of the Planetary System." He was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy and statistics.

Seventh state admitted into the union, Maryland Apr. 28, 1788, having been settled by 1634

Sixth state admitted into the union, Massachusetts Feb. 6, 1788, having been settled by 1620

Tenth state admitted into the union, Virginia June 25, 1788, having been settled by 1607

The Qajar dynasty, rulers of Iran, make Tehran their capital. They would rule Iran until the 1920s.

United States Constitution ratified June 21, 1788, when New Hampshire, the ninth state (of the required minimum of nine) voted to accept it. It is the oldest written constitution still in use by any nation in the world.

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1789 - 1815 French Revolutionary Wars / Napoleonic Wars

1789 Epidemic of influenza in New England through 1790.

Alexander Mackenzie reaches Arctic Ocean and explores Slave & Mackenzie Rivers

Baptist Reverend Elijah Craig of Scott County, Kentucky, is given credit for first aging Kentucky corn whiskey, thus creating America's first bourbon whiskey.

First Inauguration of President George Washington April 30, 1789

French Revolution begins with the storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. The prison only contained seven prisoners at the time the mobs took it over. The storming of the Bastille and the subsequent Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was the third event of this opening stage of the revolution. The first had been the revolt of the nobility, refusing to aid King Louis XVI through the payment of taxes. The second had been the formation of the National Assembly with its representatives drawn from the middle class, or bourgeoisie, whose purpose was the creation of a French constitution.

Mutiny on the British Royal Navy ship HMS Bounty. According to most accounts, the sailors were attracted to the idyllic life on the Pacific island of Tahiti and repelled by the alleged cruelty of their captain. Eighteen mutineers set Captain Bligh and most of those loyal to him afloat in a small boat. The mutineers then settled, some in Tahiti in 1789, others on Pitcairn Island, with Tahitians they had befriended. The Bounty was subsequently burned to avoid detection and to prevent desertion. Descendants of some of the mutineers and Tahitians still live on Pitcairn. Later Bligh and his crew of 18 made an epic and eventful journey in the small boat to Timor in the Dutch East Indies, and returned to the United Kingdom and reported the mutiny.

On March 4, 1789, the government of the United States of American began operations under its newly adopted Constitution.

On September 29, 1789, the First Congress of the United States passed an act which provided that invalid pensions previously paid by the States, pursuant to resolutions of the Continental Congress, should be continued and paid for 1 year by the newly established Federal Government. Subsequent legislation often extended the time limit.

Spanish build fort in Nootka Sound on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada

Summoning of the Estates General by Louis XVI of France; outbreak of the French Revolution.

There was no popular vote in the U.S. Presidential election of 1789. Instead, the electoral college (the popularly elected representatives from each of the states, called electors) chose from a group of candidates on April 30th. Each college member cast two votes with the candidate receiving the most votes becoming president and the runner-up becoming vice-president. George Washington was elected unanimously receiving all sixty-nine electoral votes (the only person to ever get all the electoral votes). John Adams came in second and became the first Vice-President.

Twelveth state admitted into the union, North Carolina Nov. 21, 1789, having been settled by 1660

Washington takes oath of office at Federal Hall in New York City on that same day as his election, April 30, 1789. Vice President was John Adams. Secretary of State was Thomas Jefferson. Secretary of Treasury was Alexander Hamilton.

1790's

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1790 Edward Jenner buys a medical degree from St.Andrews University for £15.

1790 First patent law in US established.

1790-1795 Northwest Indian War led by Gen "Mad" Anthony Wade.

Accession to the Austrian throne of Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling until August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I of Austria, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling to 1835.

Aloisio Galvani experiments on electrical stimulation of the muscles.

By 1790 as many as 100,000 Germans may have immigrated to America. They and their descendants made up an estimated 8.6 percent of the population of the United States. In Pennsylvania they accounted for 33 percent of the population and in Maryland for 12 percent.

Death of Joseph II the Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. Joseph abolished serfdom in 1781 and in 1789 he decreed that peasants must be paid in cash payments rather than labor obligations. These policies were violently rejected by both the nobility and the peasants, since their barter economy lacked money. He also abolished the death penalty in 1787, and this reform remained until 1795. He has been ranked as one of the great Enlightenment despots

First US Census with heads of household recorded, states included in this census were

First settled portion of Illinois organized into Saint Clair County of the Northwest Territory on April 27, 1790 (this will later become an Illinois county including Belleville and now part of the greater St. Louis Metropolitan Area)

Lavoisier formulates Table of 31 chemical elements.

Philadelphia temporary capital of U.S. as Congress votes to establish new capital on Potomac. U.S. population about 3,929,000, including 698,000 slaves.

The First State of the Union Address Jan. 8, 1790

The Nootka Conventions were a series of three agreements between the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Great Britain, signed in the 1790s which averted a war between the two empires over overlapping claims to portions of the Pacific Northwest coast of North America. Although the Nootka Conventions theoretically opened the Pacific Northwest coast from Oregon to Alaska to British colonization, the Napoleonic Wars distracted their efforts towards this and the proposed settlement colony in the region was abandoned.

Thirteenth state admitted into the union, Rhode Island May 29, 1790, having been settled by 1636

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1791 Edward Jenner vaccinates his 18 month old son with swine-pox. In 1798 he vaccinates his son with cow-pox. His son will die of TB at the age of 21.

An excise tax on whiskey starting in 1791 (to help retire debts from the Revolutionary War) prompted the Whiskey Rebellion that peaked in 1794 near Pittsburgh. The tax was repealed 8 years later.

Boswell's Life of Johnson.

Catholic Relief Act permits mass, travel, and schools for Catholics in England.

Fourteenth state admitted into the union, Vermont Mar. 4, 1791, having been settled by 1724

John Wesley, founder of the Methodist church, dies at age 88.

U.S. Bill of Rights came into effect as Constitutional Amendments on December 15, 1791, when they had been ratified by three-fourths of the States.

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1792 Anti-Saccharite Society forms in Europe to protest effect of sugar on people. It induces a British sugar boycott through Europe.

1792 War in defence of the constitution

1792-1815 Six major coalitions against revolutionary France and Napoleon.

Captain George Vancouver charts most of Georgia Straight, Canada

Fifteenth state admitted into the union, Kentucky June 1, 1792, having been settled by 1774

In April France declares war on Austria and Prussia.

Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

Russo-Turkish war ends.

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1793 Epidemic of influenza in New England.

1793 Major epidemic of yellow fever in the United States in Philadelphia, the social, political and financial center of the country. It would soon spread to other states through 1796.

1793-1794 The French Revolutionary Wars (a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states) continued from 1792, with new powers entering the First Coalition after the execution of King Louis XVI. Spain and Portugal entered the coalition in January 1793, and on February 1, 1793, France declared war on Great Britain and the Netherlands. Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez (1739–1823), a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars, chose to ignore orders from his government in Paris to defend Belgium and instead began an invasion of the Netherlands, hoping to overthrow the stadtholder and establish a popular republic backed by France. However, he was unable to secure the loyalty of his troops, and he defected to the Austrian lines rather than face arrest by the radical Jacobins in power in Paris.

1793-1817 First wave of state-sponsored Germans from Bohemian Forest (present-day Czechoslovakia) went to settlements in Althiitte (1793), Karlsberg (1797), Fürstental (1803), and Neuhütte (1815). Some had first homesteaded in Galicia.

Alexander Mackenzie reaches Pacific in first overland crossing of North America across Canada

Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, spurring the growth of the cotton industry and helping to institutionalize slavery in the U.S. South.

France declares war on Great Britain February 1, 1793

French King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. His wife, Marie-Antoinette's health rapidly deteriorated in the following months. By this time she suffered from tuberculosis and possibly uterine cancer, which caused her to haemorrhage frequently. Marie Antoinette, was declared guilty of treason in the early morning of October 16, 1793, after two days of proceedings. On the same day, her hair was cut off and she was driven through Paris in an open cart, wearing a simple white dress. At 12

In Virginia a Influenza Epidemic killed 500 in 5 counties in 4 weeks n 1793

Philadelphia had one of the worst epidemics of Yellow Fever in 1793. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania reported many unexplained deaths. And Middletown, Pennsylvania had many mysterious deaths

Reign of Terror begins in France.

Second Inauguration of President George Washington Mar. 4, 1793

Second partition of Poland between Russia and Prussia.

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1793

The Holy Roman Empire declares war on France.

The Proclamation of Neutrality April 22, 1793

The first local health department with a permanent board of health was formed in Baltimore, Maryland.

Upper Canada abolishes slavery.

Vermont experiences a "putrid" fever and Influenza Epidemic

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Philadelphia, Pennsylvania experiences anouther Yellow Fever Epidemic in 1794

Tadeusz Kosciuszko heads a failed revolution in Poland. Kosciusko's uprising in Poland quelled by the Russians.

The French Reign of Terror ends when Robespierre, one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution largely dominating the Committee of Public Safety, was arrested and executed, himself, on July 28, 1794.

The French capture the Rhineland in 1794, the general name for areas of Germany along the river Rhine between Bingen (where the river Nahe empties into the Rhine) and the Dutch border. To the west the area stretches to the borders with Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. Ownership of this area continues to be problematic for two centuries contributing to the causes of both World Wars in the 20th Century.

Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania as farmers object to liquor taxes during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict was rooted in western dissatisfaction with a 1791 excise tax on whiskey. The tax was part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to centralize and fund the national debt. President Washington himself led a army of 15,000 militiamen to put down the protest, but it collapsed before they arrived. About 20 men were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned. The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws.

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British colonists planted clove trees in Panang. By 1796 the English had gained control of all Dutch East Indian possessions except Java.

J. F. Blumenbach writes his book "The Human Species" thus laying the foundation of anthropology.

Randolph County (in modern central Illinois just south of Bloomington) was created as county of the Northwest Territory

Scottish Mungo Park begins exploring the Niger river.

The Treaty of Greenville 1795

Third partition of Poland between Prussia, Russia, and Austria in 1795; Poland was liquidated from the map of Europe until its restoration in 1919.

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1796-7 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania another Yellow Fever Epidemic

Catherine the Great's son Paul I (Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801) takes the throne in Russia

Edward Jenner (1749-1823) introduces smallpox vaccination. Noting the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Jenner theorized that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected the milkmaids from smallpox. On 14 May 1796, Jenner tested his hypothesis by inoculating James Phipps, a young boy of 8 years (the son of Jenner's gardener), with material from the cowpox blisters of the hand of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom. Later, he purposefully infected Phipps with smallpox. No disease followed.

Farewell Address of President George Washington Sept. 17, 1796

Napoléon Bonaparte, French general, defeats Austrians at the Battle of Lodi fought on May 10, 1796, driving them out of Lombardy (the area of north central modern Italy, just south of Switzerland, including Milan)

Sixteenth state admitted into the union, Tennessee June 1, 1796; having been settled by 1769

The 1796 election was the first contested election under the First Party System. John Adams, Washington's Vice-President, was the presidential candidate of the Federalist Party. Adams's opponent was Washington's Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. According to the original Constitution the vice president was whoever came in second, so no running mates existed in the modern sense. Adams won the election by a narrow margin of 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson (his rival, who tehn became the vice president).

The founding of the Boston Dispensary, Boston, Massachusetts, was the first organized medical care service in New England. It provided for "medical relief of the poor" in Boston, Massachusetts, from the late 18th century through the mid-20th century. In the 1960s it merged with Tufts Medical Center. This institution was supported by subscriptions of 5 dollars annually, entitling the subscriber to "recommend two patients constantly to the care of the Dispensary."

Washington's Farewell Address (Sept. 17)

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Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador kills 41,000

In Burlington, New Jersey, Charles Newbold was awarded a patent for America's first cast-iron plow. Cast in one piece, this plow did not become remarkably successful because many farmers feared that the iron in it would poison the soil.

Inauguration of President John Adams 1797

The Rajah, a ship sailing out of Salem, Massachusetts, returned to New York in 1797 with full cargo of wild Sumatran pepper (used as a meat preservative) valued at about $125,000 (more than $1.5 million today) or seven times the cost of the vessel and her contents when it left Salem 18 months earlier. Investors made 700% profit, spawning investment by other Salem merchants. This Salem-based trade flourished until 1856, creating some of the first great fortunes in the US.

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1798-1837 Giacomo Leopardi, an Italian poet, essayist, philosopher, and philologist, born. He came in touch with the main thoughts of Enlightenment, and, by his own literary evolution, created a remarkable and renowned poetic work, related to the Romantic movement, which makes him one of the greatest poets of modern Italy.

Frenchman Nicholas Robert invented the first machinery to manufacture paper 1798

General vaccine programs against cowpox instituted in the US.

Napoleon extends French conquests to Rome and Egypt.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania experienced one of the worst Yellow Fever Epidemics in 1798

The French Revolution had ignited new conflicts between Great Britain, France, and the United States. The new American government, realizing the need to prepare for war, began to rearm. Eli Whitney gets a contract from the US government to build 10,000 muskets using (it is claimed) his invention of the "American system of manufacturing", the combination of power machinery, interchangeable parts and specialized division of labor that would underlie the nation's subsequent industrial revolution. He did not deliver on the contract until 1809, he then spent the rest of his life publicizing the idea of interchangeability.

The Marine Hospital Service was established by an act of Congress July 16, 1798,, to provide for the temporary relief and maintenance of sick and disabled seamen. This was the first prepaid medical care program in the United States, financed through compulsory employer tax and federally administered. This service later became the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, predecessor to the Public Health Service of today.

The Sedition Act July 14, 1798

U.S. Navy Department established.

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Agriculturists described sweet corn in 1799, long grown by Iroquois. It's value not immediately recognized, by 1980 sweet corn was the #1 canned "vegetable" in the United States.

In 1799, Napoleon staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul. Five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts (called the Napoleonic Wars) involving every major European power. After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe.

Rosetta Stone discovered in Egypt in 1799. It was rediscovered in the Nile River Delta in 1799 by a soldier of the French expedition to Egypt.

States were given Federal help in quarantine law enforcement. The Marine Hospital Service extended to Navy men.

The Dutch East India Company fell bankrupt.

The Metric system is established in France 1799.

1800's

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1800 Benjamin Waterhouse at Harvard University introduces vaccination in Massachusetts.

1800 Napoleon Bonaparte

1800-1801 Napoleon recaptures Italy, and firmly establishes himself as First Consul in France.

1800-1823 Pope Pius VII

Alessandro Volta produces electricity.

Austria and its allies are defeated by the French in the Battle of Marengo on June 14, 1800. This victory drove the Austrians out of Italy, and enhanced Napoleon's political position in Paris as First Consul of France in the wake of his coup d’état the previous November.

British sugar consumption reaches 160 million pounds per year.

Illinois becomes a part of Indiana Territory May 7, 1800.

Robert Owen's (1771–1858) social reforms in England. He was a social reformer and one of the founders of socialism. Owen's philosophy was based on three intellectual pillars

Second federal census taken for the United States. It showed that 5,308,483 people were living in the United States of which 893,602 were slaves. It only lists names of family heads. A few parts are missing (the states of Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia were lost), but it is otherwise largely intact.

The soybean was known in Philadelphia, but gained little widespread attention. The bean would be introduced to California agriculture in San Francisco by direct importation from Japan in 1850.

U.S. federal government moves from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800

William Herschel discovers infrared rays.

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1801-1802 Italian Republic

1801-1825

1801-1877 Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah

Austria makes temporary peace with France.

Britain becomes the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with one monarch and one parliament in 1801. However, Catholics are excluded from voting.

First Inauguration of President Thomas Jefferson 1801

First widespread experimentation with vaccines begins.

The cast iron process was invented, eventually allowing construction of large conservatories and "wide" bridge spans.

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1802 Britian makes peace with France.

The first seed sold in packages in America were marketed by a Shaker community at Enfield, Connecticut. Keeping their own seed lines healthy and free of corruption was important in that community.

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English scientist John Dalton introduced the atomic theory of matter in 1803.

1803-04 Fort Dearborn built at Chicago, in present day Cook County, Illinois.

Denmark, which had been active in the slave trade, was the first country to ban the trade through legislation in 1792, which took effect in 1803.

German pharmacist, F.W. Serturner, isolated morphine from opium latex. The three extracts of opium commonly used medicinally are morphine, codeine, and papaverine.

Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier improved on Robert's paper making machine in 1803. The continuous belt of wire mesh that layers the pulp is today called a Fourdrinier Screen.

In 1803 the U.S. led by President Thomas Jefferson aquired for a total cost of 15 million dollars ($217 million in today's currency) France's claim to the territory of "Louisiana." The land purchased contained all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, parts of Minnesota that were west of the Mississippi River, most of North Dakota, nearly all of South Dakota, northeastern New Mexico, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide, and Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans thus doubling the size of the United States at a cost of less than 3 cents per acre. Napoleon Bonaparte, head of France at the time, upon completion of the agreement, stated, "This accession of territory affirms forever the power of the United States, and I have given England a maritime rival who sooner or later will humble her pride."

India's population is 200 million.

Maquinna, a powerful chief of Nootka Sound Canada, and his people attack the American trading ship Boston killing the captain and all the crew, sparing only two, whom they kept as slaves. One of those two, John R. Jewitt, wrote a classic tale of captivity about his years with them and providing historical information about how the natives lived.

New York experiences a Yellow Fever Epidemic in 1803

President Thomas Jefferson had Congress appropriate $2,500 and commissioned the Corps of Discovery as a scientific and military expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. It was the first overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back (1804–1806). It was headed by the United States Army soldiers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. They left Pittsburg August 31, 1803 headed west. On their return trip down the Missouri River they reached St. Louis on September 23, 1806.

Seventeenth state admitted into the union, Ohio Mar. 1, 1803, having been settled by 1788

The first permanent Marine hospital was authorized to be built in Boston, Massachusetts.

War erupts between Britian and France again.

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A Protestant group from Wuerttemberg, named The Harmonists or Rappists after their leader George Rapp, founded Harmony, in western Pennsylvania, a utopian community in 1804. Ten years later they sell Harmony to the Mennonites and move to their Indiana settlement, Neu Harmonie (1814-1824), which becomes the economic "Wonder of the West" The settlements were economically successful, producing many goods in a clothing factory, a sawmill, a tannery, and from their vineyards and distillery.

Alexander Hamilton is mortally wounded in duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804.

American and European traders began stripping Pacific Islands for sandalwood for use in Europe and China in 1804. Sandalwood trees were wiped out on Fiji by 1809, on the Marquesas by 1814, on Hawaii by 1825.

Capt. John Chester brought the first shipload of 30 bunches of bananas to Boston aboard the schooner Reynard in 1804. Bananas did not become common in this country until after 1870, when Capt. L. D. Baker began exchange of mining equipment for Jamaican bananas. As the 19th century progressed, bananas became more commonplace with New Orleans becoming the principle port of entry for the fruit by 1890.

Haiti wins independence from France. Napoleon abandoned his dreams of restoring France's New World empire because war resumed between France and Britain in 1803 and the British Royal Navy firmly controlled of the seas. This meant that reinforcements and supplies for French General Rochambeau in Haiti never arrived in sufficient numbers. To concentrate on the war in Europe and generate need cash, Napoleon signed the Louisiana Purchase in April, selling France's North American possessions to the United States. The Haitian army, then led by Dessalines, devastated Rochembeau and the French army at the Battle of Vertières on November 18, 1803. Jean Jacques Dessalines became Haiti's first emperor in 1804 when on January 1, 1804 he declared Haitian independence becoming the first black nation to gain freedom from European colonial rule.. Most of the remaining French colonists fled ahead of the defeated French army, many migrating to Louisiana or Cuba. In a final act of retribution, the remaining French were slaughtered by Haitian military forces. France refused to recognize the newly independent country's sovereignty until 1825, in exchange for 150 million gold francs. Haiti agreed to pay the price to lift a crippling embargo imposed by France, Britain, and the United States, but to do so, the Haitian government had to take out high interest loans. The debt was not repaid in full until 1947.

Lewis spent nine months in Philadelphia studying botany under Benjamin Smith Barton to prepare for the journey. The seed they collected were shared by Hamilton at The Woodlands and by M'Mahon. By 1825 Oregon grape holly was widely known and was available commercially from Prince Nursery of Flushing, NY for $25.

Napoleon transforms the Consulate of France into an empire. Napoleon crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I on 2 December 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris and then crowned Joséphine Empress. He systematizes French law under Code Napoleon.

Robert Owen sets up a "utopian" community in Scotland

Sauk and Fox Indians in 1804 cede to United States lands east of the Mississippi River.

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Russia joins the Third Coalition against Napoleon

32nd state admitted into the union, Minnesota May 11, 1858, having been settled by 1805

Battle of Trafalgar 1805

Britian, Austria, Russia and Sweden form the Third Coalition against France.

First legislators sent to represent Illinois in Indiana legislature at Vincennes July 1805.

Kingdom of Italy (1805–1814) was a state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.

Napoleon victorious over Austrian and Russian forces at the Battle of Austerlitz in Moravia (present day Czech Republic). The French army, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russo-Austrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I. The battle is often regarded as a tactical masterpiece. The French victory at Austerlitz effectively brought the Third Coalition to an end.

Second Inauguration of President Thomas Jefferson 1805

The British Royal Navy defeats the combined fleets of the French Navy and Spanish Navy fleets in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre Villeneuve off the south-west coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost.

1806 - 1812 Russo-Turkish War, 1806-12

Defeated by Napoleon, The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation ceases to exist after more than 800 years; replaced by Confederation of the Rhine with Napoleon as its "protector."

In 1806 Napoleon offered 100,000 francs to anyone who could create sugar from a native plant. Russian chemist K. S. Kirchhof later discovered that sulfuric acid added to potato starch would make the conversion.

Martin Baum, riverboat pioneer on the Ohio and Mississippi, becomes mayor of Cincinnati

Russia and Turkey go to war in 1806. Russia gains a region of Bessarabia, and a position in the Balkins. Prussia, Britian, Russia and Sweden form the fourth Coalition against France. Prussia is defeated in the battle of Jena.

Britain banned the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in 1807, imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship. The Royal Navy, which then controlled the world's seas, moved to stop other nations from filling Britain's place in the slave trade and declared that slaving was equal to piracy and was punishable by death.

Ely Whitney's cotton gin by 1807 enabled the United States to supply 60% of Britain's cotton, becoming the world's largest producer by 1820 - with production rising from 3,000 bales in 1790 to 4.5 million bales by 1860. The plantation production of cotton and the manner in which cotton exhausts nutrients from its soil meant that between 1790 and 1860 over 800,000 slaves were moved to the new territories of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. With increased production, cotton came to underwrite so completely the economy of cotton states that any sentiment against slavery slowly disappeared in the South. Cotton production thus drove the division between North and South.

Ice cream cones introduced

In Prussia Baron Karl vom Stein issued the Edict of Emancipation, at Memel on 9 October 1807, which abolished the institution of serfdom throughout Prussia from 8 October 1810.

Robert Fulton (1765-1815) and Robert Livingston (Fulton's wife's uncle) together built the first commercial steamboat in 1807, the North River Steamboat (later known as the Clermont), which carried passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. The Clermont first made the 150 mile trip in 32 hours on August 17, 1807.

Russia is defeated by the French in the Battle of Friedland effectively ending the War of the Fourth Coalition (1806–1807) against Napoleon.

The Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon of France agree to blockade Great Britain in 1807. Alexander pledges to compel Sweden to join the interdiction.

1808 - 1809 The Finnish War between Russia and Sweden wherein Sweden cedes Finland to Russia

Attention of Congress called to idea of Illinois and Michigan Canal by Albert Gallatin. It was not finished until 1848. It allowed boat transportation from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico and helped establish Chicago as the transportation hub of the United States, opening before railroads were laid in the area. Its function was largely replaced by the wider and shorter Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1900 and it ceased transportation operations in 1933. The Illinois and Michigan Canal Locks and Towpath, a collection of eight engineering structures and segments of the canal between Lockport and LaSalle-Peru, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Canoeists can travel 15 miles of the canal in open water between Channahon State Park and Gebhard Wood and five miles between Utica and LaSalle.

Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth Symphonies performed.

French armies occupy Rome and Spain, extending Napoleon's empire. Britain begins aiding Spanish guerrillas against Napoleon in Peninsular War. Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy would arrive and would land troops and supplies and aid the Coalition's land forces in a concerted operation. Royal Navy ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayed near enough to the coastline.

French scientist Joseph Gasy Lussac measures the relative volume of gases involved in chemical reactions and discovers the "law of combining volumes" stating that "when measured at the same temperature and pressure volumes of gaseous reactants and products of chemical reactions are always in simple ratios of whole numbers"

Goethe publishes the first part of "Faust".

In Prussia Baron Karl vom Stein gives the ability to control municipal affairs over to local elected officials.

Napoleon I conquerors Spain, replacing Ferdinand VII with Joseph Bonaparte.

The United States outlawed the importation of slaves on January 1, 1808, the earliest date permitted by the constitution for such a ban.

1808-1809 Sweden is defeated by Russia in the Finnish War. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire with the Czar as its ruler. Finland´s position is confirmed in its first separate Diet. Finland retains its own legislation and its old form of society, including the free status of the peasantry, the Lutheran religion and the old Swedish system of law and government.

1809 Massachusetts encourages its towns to make provision for the vaccination of inhabitants with cow pox vaccines.

Benjamin Silliman and an apothecary named Darling open two soda-water fountains in New York City, hoping to make themselves rich selling carbonated water for "health purposes", but the business fails. It would be several decades later before the soda fountain became a social icon in America.

First Inauguration of President James Madison 1809

Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden is deposed and the Riksdag of the Estates gives the crown to Gustavus' uncle Charles XIII (although known as King Charles XIII in Sweden, he was actually the seventh Swedish king by that name) with the promise that the Rigsdag would be able to check the kings actions.

Illinois Territory created with its capital, Kaskaskia on March 1, 1809. The Illinois Territory originally included areas that became the states of Illinois, Wisconsin, the eastern portion of Minnesota, and the western portion of the upper peninsula of Michigan. As Illinois was preparing to become a state, the remaining area of the territory was attached to the Michigan Territory and ceased using the name Illinois Territory.

The area of Montana was settled by 1809

1810's

Goats introduced to St. Helena Island began devastation that eventually caused extinction of 22 of the 33 endemic plants.

Hahnemann founds homeopathy.

Marriage of Napoleon to Archduchess Marie Louise von Hapsburg, daughter of Francis I, (following his divorce of Joséphine this further strained his relations with the Church) and thirteen cardinals were imprisoned for non-attendance at the marriage ceremony.

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla begins the fight for Mexican independence from Spain.

Third federal census taken for the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States of which 1,191,362 were slaves. The 1810 Census included one new state

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