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The Life and Times of
Anna Margaretha Thomas

This Time Line of the life and times of Anna Margaretha Thomas is designed to include Her primary personal and immediate family member life events (shown below in red) along with the context of universal cultural, social, political, military, economic, and health events of those times plus the concurrent technological innovations that may have impacted the lives of Anna Margaretha Thomas and Her immediate family members during Her lifetime. It is hoped that reviewing Her known personal life events within the context of these other various contemporary influences upon Her life will help you better understand and appreciate life and times of Anna Margaretha Thomas.

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1650's

1651 Britain's Navigation Act required that all imports from the colonies be received on British ships.

1652 - 1654 First Anglo-Dutch War

1652 The first New England pine trees were felled for British ship masts. Before the end of the century, British warships were built in North America. By 1775 easy sources of wood for masts had been stripped from Eastern North America.

John Hull of Boston, Massachusetts was selected to establish a New England mint. His first coins bore inscription only, but his second set was ornamented with a willow, his third with an oak, and his fourth (the largest issue) with a pine. These Boston shillings are sometimes called the tree coins. John Hull grew wealthy through this process and became the subject of an apocryphal tale, which claims that the marriage of his daughter to Mr. Samuel Sewell was settled with a dowry of 30,000 shillings, the amount determined as equivalent to her weight.

Pasqua Rosée, a Greek who settled in England, opened his London coffeehouse with a printing of "The Vertue of the COFFEE Drink" summarized as

1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell dissolves parliament and takes the title of "Lord Protector" to rule as a dictator

Cromwell becomes Lord Protector 1653.

1654 Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat develop the theory of probability. English chemist Robert Boyle helps found the Philosophical College (which later became the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge).

Kosher food in the U.S. introduced

Her husband, Christian Thomas, born during 1655

Christian Huggens discovered the rings of Saturn.

Birth

Anna Margaretha Thomas born during 1656

1656 Baruch Spinoza is ex-communicated by the rabbis and banished from Amsterdam. For the next five years he lives on the outskirts of the city working grinding optical lenses.

1

1657 Boston Measles Epidemic

1657 Chocolate drinking introduced in London.

2

1658 Oliver Cromwell died of malaria, refusing to take the only known treatment (quinine from cinchona), because it was introduced by Jesuits. As a result, Amsterdam "was lighted up as for a great deliverance and children ran along the canals, shouting for joy that the Devil was dead." By 1681 cinchona was universally accepted as antimalarial.

1658-1712 Richard Cromwell Ruler of England. Puritan government collapses.

1660's

4

1660-1685 Charles II King of England. English Parliament calls for the restoration of the monarchy and invites Charles II to return from France restoring the monarchy in England continuing through James II. Decision of Long Parliament of 1644 reversed reinstating the Apocrypha, but reversal was not heeded by non-conformists. Charles II agrees to respect the Magna Carta and Petition of Rights

Area of New Jersey settled by 1660

Area of North Carolina settled by 1660

5

1661 Charles II is crowned King of England. Louis XIV begins personal rule as absolute monarch; starts to build Versailles.

1661 Louis XIV becomes absolute monarch of France and begins work on palace at Versailles

Georg Hack from Cologne settles in Maryland

6

The Connecticut Colony Charter 1662

1662 Moliere's troupe performs "le ecole des femmes"

Britain importing 16 million pounds of sugar per year.

8

1664 - 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War including the capture of New Amsterdam, renamed New York City

1664 British take New Amsterdam from the Dutch. English limit "Nonconformity" with reestablished Anglican Church.

Isaac Newton's experiments with gravity.

9

1655-1667 Pope Alexander VII

1665 London swept by bubonic plague. It was noticed that people who lived without sugar escaped harm. Over 68,000 die.

1665 Robert Hooke identifies cells

Great Plague in London kills 75,000.

10

1666 Approval of the Canal du Midi is given to improve transportation in France and provide ships with a route to the Atlantic from the Mediterranean.

Great Fire of London.

Molière's Misanthrope.

11

1667 "Little Russia", an area around Kiev, is conceeded by the Polish government to the Russian government.

1667 Earthquake in Shemaka, Caucasia kills 80,000

1667 Epidemics of smallpox, dysentary begin.

1667 Milton's Paradise Lost, widely considered the greatest epic poem in English.

1667-1670 Pope Clement IX

The apparent danger of using animal serums foreign to human beings and animal serums foreign to other animals is reported in medical literature in 1667, when lambs blood was unsuccessfully used as a human blood transfusion.

12

1668 Francesco Redi attempts to prove that rotting meat cannot spontaneously turn into flies.

1668 Merck begins an apothecary shop in Darmstadt Germany.

Area of Michigan settled by 1668

Researcher and explorer Johann Lederer from Hamburg arrives

1670's

14

1670-1676 Pope Clement X

Area of South Carolina settled by 1670

Hudson Bay Co. founded with Prince Ruprecht as governor

Measles and tertian fever epidemics displace cholera.

16

1672 - 1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War

1672 - 1678 Franco-Dutch War

1672 Dysentary becomes mild and some smallpox occurs.

1672 Peter the Great

17

1673 In England the Test Act is passed, allowing only members of the Anglican Church to hold public office.

1673 Inoculation against smallpox appears in Denmark.

1673 Marquette and Jolliet descend the Mississippi, return to Wisconsin via Illinois River and Lake Michigan.

Jacques Marquette discovered Mississippi June 17, 1673.

Jacques Marquette visited present site of Chicago, in present day Cook County.

Kaskaskia or La Vantum Indian village of 7-8000 inhabitants discovered September 1673 in present day Randolph county Illinois.

Moliere dies at age 51.

18

1674 First mention of diabetes mellitus in British Pharmaceutice Rationalis, by Thomas Willis, member of the Royal College of Physicians.

In Virginia the eventual demands of tobacco as a crop resulted in institution of slave labor in about 1674.

19

Death of Jacques Marquette at mouth of Marquette River, Michigan May 18, 1675.

1675 King Philip's War

1675 Malaria epidemic in England and discovery of "peruvian bark" quinine.

1675 Marquette founds mission near Starved Rock, Illinois.

Cowpeas in America introduced

Slave traders brought cowpeas to Jamaica. A native of India, this pea has many varieties important in the southeastern US, particularly the black-eye and the crowders.

20

1676 Jimsonweed gained its common name (originally Jamestown weed) when British soldiers in Virginia mistook Datura for an edible plant and "turn'd fool" with hallucinations that endured for eleven days.

1676-1689 Pope Innocent XI

Danish astronomer Ole Christensen Roemer observes that light moves at a finite speed by studying Jupiter's moons.

Nikolaus de Meyer from Hamburg (Germany) becomes Mayor of New York

The First Thanksgiving Proclamation 1676

21

Anna Margaretha Thomas married Christian Thomas during 1677

1677 Ice cream becomes popular dessert in Paris.

1677 On February 2 first Baruch Spinoza dies.

22

1678 First medical treatise in America on smallpox and measles.

23

1679 England passes the Habeas Corpuss act guaranteeing people protection from arbitrary arrest.

1680's

24

Her daughter, Catharina Elisabe Thomas Brunner, born during 1680

1680 - 1684 Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

1680 La Salle builds fort Crevecoeur near Peoria, Illinois.

Cranberries in New Jersey introduced

January 1-15, 1680 Robert De LaSalle builds the Fort of the Broken Heart, the first thing done on the soil of Illinois with a view to permanent occupation, in present day Randolph County.

Robert De LaSalle first visits Illinois January 1680 .

25

1681 The Canal du Midi is finished after eight years of work. The Canal was to be a shortcut between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, avoiding the long sea voyage around hostile Spain and the Barbary pirates, and a trip that in the 17th century required a full month of sailing

26

1682 La Salle erects Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock, Illinois.

1682 Pennsylvania founded by William Penn

Fort called Fort St Louis, built on Starved Rock, near Utica in present day LaSalle County.

Ivan V and Peter I are co-rulers of Imperial Russia, with Peter's sister Sophia as the regent in 1682.

Peter I The Great rules Russia 1682-1725

Robert De LaSalle's third visit and discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi on April 7, 1682 and taken for possession of France.

The area of present day was settled by 1682

27

1683 Thirteen families of German Mennonites and Quakers seeking religious freedom arrived in Pennsylvania on the ship "Concord" led by Francis Daniel Pastorius. They purchased 43,000 acres of land and founded Germantown, six miles north of Philadelphia.

Vienna defended against Turkish invasion

War of European powers against the Turks (1683 to 1699). Vienna withstands three-month Turkish siege marking the high point of Turkish advance into Europe.

28

1684 French fleet bomb Genoa

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's calculus published.

29

1685 Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Germany.

1685-1688 James II King of England, succeeding Charles II in England, calls for freedom of conscience (1687). He passes laws to grant rights to Catholics and dissolves many anti-Irish laws. Protestants fear restoration of Catholicism and demand "Glorious Revolution."

In France, Edict of Nantes of 1598, granting freedom of worship to Huguenots, is revoked by Louis XIV. Thousands of Protestants flee France.

30

Area of Arkansas settled by 1686

31

1687 Boston Measles Epidemic

1687 Sir Isaac Newton publishes "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica"

French explorer Robert De LaSalle murdered March 19, 1687 in Texas.

32

Germantown, Pennsylvania's Pastorius pens first protest against slavery

James II William of Orange invited to throne of England and James II escapes to France (1688). William III and his wife, Mary, crowned joint rulers of England.

James II flees to Ireland. William and Mary become

33

1689 - 1698 War of the Grand Alliance

1689 French armies push eastward toward Rhine River valley and burn Heidelberg castle

1689 Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia-attempts to westernize nation and build Russia as a military power. Defeats Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava (1709).

1689-1691 Pope Alexander VIII

1689-1702 William III King of England, with Mary II as Queen until 1694

Beginning of the French and Indian Wars (1689 to 1763), campaigns in America linked to a series of wars between France and England for domination of Europe.

James II leads and fails a rebellion in Ireland.

King William's War between the British and the French in North America begins.

Sophia is forced off the Russian throne. Peter's mother rules as regent instead.

The Bill of Rights is passed in England.

1690's

34

1690 New York Yellow Fever Epidemic

1690 William III of England defeats former king James II and Irish rebels at Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.

In August 1690 a fleet of thirty-four ships leave Boston city to attack Quebec.

John Locke's Human Understanding.

Proprietorship of Fort St Louis granted to Henri de Tonti for fur-trading purposes.

Rice in South Carolina introduced

35

1691 British execute Frankfurt-born Jacob Leisler, first elected governor of New York and champion of American independence

1691-1700 Pope Innocent XII

1691-92 Henri de Tonti, La Salle's lieutenant, constructs new Fort St. Louis on Lake Peoria.

36

1692 Salem witch trials.

37

1693 Earthquake in Catania, Italy kills 60,000

1693 The first record of the grapefruit in the West Indies was made by Hans Sloane in a catalog of Jamaican plants. It is assumed the grapefruit originated there from chance hybrids between other cultivated citrus. This plant was not introduced to Florida until nearly 1850.

Famine struck northern Europe in 1693. By the next year fully 10% of the population of northern France had perished as a result.

38

1694 Ivan V and Peter of Russia become the real rulers of Russia after their mother's death.

Voltaire, a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties including freedom of religion and free trade, is born.

39

1695 Paris and Rome experience ferocious epidemics of Pertussis.

40

1696 Ivan V of Russia dies. Augustus II is elected leader of Poland.

41

1697 King William's War ends.

Father Francisco Cupani published the first scientific description of Lathyrus odoratus, a plant from Sicily and the parent stock of today's sweet pea. Seed that he sent in 1699 to Robert Uvedale, headmaster of Enfield Grammar School near London, resulted in cultivated forms, and by 1731, a famous selection called 'Painted Lady'.

43

1699 French found Holy Family Mission at Cahokia, in present day St Clair County, Illinois.

1699 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

Area of Louisiana settled by 1699

Area of Mississippi settled by 1699

1700's

44

Her child, Catharina Elisabe Thomas Brunner, married Joseph Johann Brunner on November 23, 1700

1700 - 1721 Great Northern War between a coalition of Denmark/Norway, Russia and Saxony/Poland on one side and Sweden on the other side

1700-1721 -The Great Northern War, paralleled the War of the Spanish Succession. Russia assumes the position of a great power.

1700-1721 Pope Clement XI

35 million pounds of tobacco produced by the Virginia colony by 1700.

British Isles importing 20 million pounds of sugar per year.

Coffee in America introduced

Deaths from tuberculosis increase dramatically in England and other sugar consuming countries as the body environment changes to accommodate it.

In the 1700's the settling of the British American colonies by small German-speaking religious groups continued. The groups included Swiss Mennonites, Baptist Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, Moravians, Amish, and Waldensians. Most German immigrants belonged to the main Lutheran and Reformed churches. The central colonies received the greatest part of this immigration, especially Pennsylvania. As many as half of these immigrants came as redemptioners, that is, they agreed to work in America for four to seven years in exchange for free passage across the Atlantic. German settlers designed and built the Conestoga wagon, which was used in the opening of the American Frontier.

Refined sugar is the most important export of France.

45

1701 - 1714 War of Spanish Succession

1701 English Parliament passes the Act of Settlement

The Settlement Act of 1701 establishing the supremacy of Parliament in England and stating that only an Anglican can inherit the throne. William III of England heads the second Grand Alliance, which became involved in the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain obtains an Iroquois "deed" to western lands purportedly conquered by the Iroquois though later abandoned by them under pressure from enemies.

War of the Spanish Succession begins 1701 - the last of Louis XIV's wars for domination of the continent. The Peace of Utrecht (1714) will end the conflict and mark the rise of the British Empire. Called Queen Anne's War in America (1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French, it ends with the British taking New Foundland, Acadia, and Hudson's Bay Territory from France, and Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain.

46

1702 - 1713 Queen Anne's War The North American part of the War of Spanish Succession

1702 First appearance of yellow fever in the United States. It would appear 35 times between 1702 and 1800 and would appear almost every year between 1800 and 1879.

1702-1714 Anne Queen of England

Area of Alabama settled by 1702

England's first daily newspaper, the Daily Courant is founded 1702.

Fort St Louis discontinued.

William III (William of Orange), died on March 19, 1702, from complications after being thrown from his horse - Queen Anne succeeds to throne of England

47

1703

48

1704 Deerfield (Mass.) Massacre of English colonists by French and Indians.

Bach's first cantata.

Jonathan Swift's Tale of a Tub.

July 24-Aug 12, 1704 Capture of Gibraltar by British forces, Battle of Blenheim, Bavaria.

The first newspaper in America, the "Boston News Letter", begins publishing in 1704.

50

1706 Coffee trees were sent to the botanical garden in Amsterdam from Sri Lanka (where the Dutch had only recently managed to establish plantations, breaking an ancient Arab monopoly). A single tree survived, which was the parent of a tree at the conservatory in Paris. In 1723, de Cliey carried a single offspring from the Paris tree to Martinique, which yielded thousands of trees there by 1777. The Martinique plantations became the source of the first plants to be taken to the various coffee-growing regions of South America.

French are defeated at the Battle of Ramillies near the Belgian village of Ramillies-Offus, forcing them to withdraw from the Netherlands on May 23, 1706

51

British defeat at Almanza in Spain April 25, 1707

The Act of Union in 1704 joins England, Wales, and Scotland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

52

Her husband, Christian Thomas, died on February 24, 1708

British victory over French at Battle of Oudenarde on July 11, 1708 - later in September the British capture Minorca

Casseroles introduced

53

Anna Margaretha Thomas died on October 12, 1709

1709 Famine struck Europe, affecting Prussia on a great scale.

1709 Peter the Great of Russia defeats the Swedes at Poltava.

1709 Plague in Turkey, Russia, Scandinavia and Germany through 1710.

Battle of Malplaquet, September 11, 1709, French defeated in the bloodiest battle of the war at the French village of Malplaquetl

First mass emigration from the Palatinate (modern German areas)

1710's

54

1710 - 1711 Russo-Turkish War, 1710-11, a part of the Great Northern War

1710 Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber leads his clan into the area now called Kuwait and within the next twenty years establishes an unofficial rule.

650 Palatines and Swiss settle at New Bern, NC in 1710

Root beer introduced

55

1711 British forces, together with the American colonies, attempt to attack Quebec, but are discouraged when a storm in the St. Lawrence sinks nine of their ships.

Marlborough forces the "Non Plus Lines." August 05, 1711

56

1712 Captain Frezier introduced the Chilean strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis, to France. It arrived in Britain a few years later. This plant, along with the North American species taken to France by Jean Robin in 1624, is in the ancestry of today's commercial strawberries.

1712 First record of vaccinations for smallpox in France.

New York Slave Rebellion of 1712, in which Native and African slaves united.

57

April 11, 1713 Peace of Utrecht signed, treaty of which recognizes Iroquois (several tribes of indigenous people of North America based mostly in present-day upstate New York) as British subjects.

Boston Measles Epidemic in 1713

John Needham, an English biologist who would "prove" abiogenesis (life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter) works is born.

Queen Anne's War ends in 1713.

58

1714-18 Venice at war with Turkey

George, the German Elector of Hanover becomes King George I, of Britain ruling from 1714 to 1727

King James Authorized Version of the Bible published in Ireland

59

1715 Jacobite nobles lead uprisings in Scotland to try to put James Stuart (son of James II) on the throne. Five year old Louis XV of France succeeds his great grandfather, with the Duke of Orleans as regent.

November 13, 1715 the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland, defeat of the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

60

1716 The first certain account of plant hybridization was provided in a letter written by Cotton Mather, discussing the "infection" of Indian corn planted alongside yellow corn. The following year a British hybrid dianthus was described. In 1721 a hybrid cabbage was reported. By 1750 the controversy of sex in plants was in the news. By 1760 plant hybridization was a professional occupation. The study, hybridization, and selection of corn continued. By 1969 scientists understood more about corn genetics than the genetics of any other flowering plant.

61

1717 Innoculation against smallpox instituted in England by Lady Mary Montague after she returns from Turkey, where it was in a popular experimental stage at the time

62

1718 Blackbeard the pirate dies.

1718 Pierre, Duque de Boisbriant appointed first commandant of Illinois by the French.

Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary in 1718, much less bulky than Reims- Douay

In November the only son of Peter the Great of Russia dies.

The initial shipment of American ginseng (sent from Canada) arrived in China (Canton). In 1773 shipment began from Boston, with a load of 55 tons on the Hingham. That shipment is said to have earned nearly three dollars a pound, which would have made for substantially profitable cargo. The potential of monetary gain created a strong supply network of North American "seng diggers." Philadelphia records from 1788 indicate that Daniel Boone sold 15 tons of ginseng root to merchants there. Given such levels of harvesting, the American ginseng (Panax quinqefolium) became rare in nature. By 1885 George Stanton had founded his 150-acre Ginseng Farm in New York.

63

1719 Outbreak of the plague in Marseilles, France through 1720.

1720's

64

1720 Fort de Chartres built by French north of Kaskaskia.

1720 Peter the Great of Russia signs treaty with the Chinese permitting trade. Japanese shogun Yoshimune repeals the laws against European books and study.

Area of Illinois was settled by 1720

Augsburg and Marienthal founded in Louisiana

French fries & ketchup introduced

65

Pope Innocent XIII

1721 In the United States, a clergyman named Cotton Mather attempts to introduce a crude form of smallpox vaccination by smearing smallpox pus into scratches in healthy people. Over 220 people are treated during the first six months of experimentation. Only six had no apparent reaction.

1721 Under the Treaty of Uusikaupunki (Nystad) Sweden cedes south-eastern Finland and the Baltic provinces of Livonia, Estonia and Ingria to Russia.

1721-1724 Pope Innocent XIII

66

1722 First church and first stone residence erected at Kaskaskia, in present day Randolph County, in southwestern Illinois.

1722 In Wales, a Dr. Wright refers to inoculation against smallpox in the British Isles as "an ancient practice". A citizen of Wales, 99 years old, states that innoculation had been known and used during his entire lifetime, and that his mother stated it was common during her life, and that she got smallpox through her "innoculation".

Peter the Great of Russia issues an edict saying that the ruler of Russia shall choose his own successor. He established the Table of Ranks which determined a person's position and status according to service to the Emperor (tsar or czar) rather than according to birth or seniority

67

Her daughter, Catharina Elisabe Thomas Brunner, died on January 17, 1723

1723 First record of smallpox immunization in Ireland, when a doctor in Dublin inoculates 25 people. Three died, and the custom was briefly abandoned.

68

1724 First record of vaccination for smallpox in Germany. It soon fell into disfavor due to the number of deaths. Years later, doctors were able to reintroduce it.

1724 Most Tulpehocken Delaware inidans migrate to Ohio Valley.

1724-1730 Pope Benedict XIII

Area of Vermont settled by 1724

Pope Benedict XIII

Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle is appointed secretary of state for the British ministry's southern department, with responsibility to supervise the American colonies. His policy is known as "solitary neglect."

69

1725 Catherine I of Russia takes the throne at her husbands death.

Chief Chicagou sent to France by French settlers of Illinois.

Louis XV of France marries Marie Leszczynska, daughter of the King of Poland.

The Academy of Sciences is founded.

70

1726 Johnathan Swift publishes "Guliver's Travels"

71

1727 Coffee planted in Brazil.

1727-1760 George II King of Great Britain crowned.

A Shawnee band migrates from the upper Delaware Valley to the Ohio country.

Area of Kansas settled by 1727

Area of West Virginia settled by 1727

Catherine I of Russia dies, and the grandson of her husband is put on the throne.

Death of Sir Issac Newton on March 31, 1727.

George II succeeds his father George I June 11, 1727

72

1728 Seventh-Day Adventists under Conrad Beissel build Ephrata Cloisters in Pennsylvania

1729 Bach's St. Matthew Passion.

1729 Catherine the Great Empress of all the Russias

Boston Measles Epidemic

China banned opium in 1729. That ban on importation would be seriously compromised by the British East India Company until 1839.

Isaac Newton's Principia translated from Latin into English.

Lazzaro Spallanzani, who would attempt to prove that abiogenesis (life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter) doesn't work is born in 1729.

The Irish oat famine in 1729 engendered Jonathan Swift's famous pamphlet entitled "A Modest Proposal."

1730's

1730 French instigate a massacre of the Fox nation (The Meskwaki tribe of Native Americans which originally lived east of Michigan along the Saint Lawrence River) that reduced them as an independent force.

1730 Peter II of Russia dies of smallpox. Anna, the niece of Peter the Great, becomes Empress of Russia.

1730-1740 Pope Clement XII

Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham

Protestants were expelled from Salzburg, Austria, in 1731. They subsequently founded Ebenezer, Georgia.

1732-3 Worldwide Influenza Epidemic

Benjamin Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanack in 1732.

By 1732 the black slave population of South Carolina numbered about 32,000 as compared to approximately 14,000 whites. Slavery at this time in South Carolina was driven by rice cultivation. Rice seed imported from Madagascar was grown and harvested by black slaves from rice growing zones of Africa. Thus the early success in rice production in North America was possible due to a skilled, slave labor force.

Don Carlos of Bourbon becomes duke of Parma

J. S. Bach completed his Coffee Cantata in 1732. He stages a daughter making the humorous request

James Oglethorpe and others found Colony of Georgia by Royal Charter in 1732.

The first German-language newspaper, Philadelphische Zeitung, was published in the United States in 1732. German publishing flourished in Philadelphia and in smaller communities such as Ephrata, Pennsylvania.

1733 John Kay invents flying shuttle loom.

1733-1735

After Augustus II dies in 1733, his son (Augustus III) is elected ruler of Poland.

Area of Georgia settled by 1733

Area of Indiana settled by 1733

John Bartram of Philadelphia in 1733 began correspondence with Collinson, Miller, and others. Their exchange is the likely source of pawpaw, sourwood, and other American plants introduced to cultivation in Europe.

John Kay patented the fly-shuttle in 1733, which quickened the weaving of cloth, thus mechanizing weaving - while the generation of thread through spinning remained a cottage industry.

John Peter Zenger, who came to America as an indentured servant from the Palatinate region of Germany, founded a newspaper, The New-York Weekly Journal in 1733. Two years later he was acquitted in a landmark trial involving freedom of the press.

Schwenkfelders, a small American Christian body rooted in the 16th century Protestant Reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489Ð1561), from Silesia arrive in Pennsylvania in 1733. His ideas appear to be a middle ground between the ways of the Reformation of Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, and the Radical Reformation of the Anabaptists.

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