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The Life and Times of
Simeon Woods

This Time Line of the life and times of Simeon Woods is designed to include His primary personal and immediate family member life events (shown below in red) along with the context of universal cultural, social, political, military, economic, and health events of those times plus the concurrent technological innovations that may have impacted the lives of Simeon Woods and His immediate family members during His lifetime. It is hoped that reviewing His known personal life events within the context of these other various contemporary influences upon His life will help you better understand and appreciate life and times of Simeon Woods.

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1820's

1820-1823 Nationwide "Fever" Epidemic starts at Schuylkill River (which stretches across Pennsylvania ending at Philadelphia) and spreads

1820-1830 George IV King of England

First organized immigration of blacks to Africa from the US began with 86 free blacks sailing to Sierra Leone in February of 1820.

Fourth federal census taken for the United States in 1820. It was conducted on August 7, 1820. The total population was determined to be 9,638,453 of which 1,538,022 were slaves. The center of population was about 120 miles west-northwest of Washington in Hardy County, Virginia (now in West Virginia).

Henry Clay's Missouri Compromise bill passed Congress on March 3, 1820. It allowed the admittance of Missouri as slave state, of Maine as a non-slave state, and barred slavery from the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30' N. (the southern boundry of Missouri). It was effectively repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, despite efforts made to fight the Act by prominent speakers, including Abraham Lincoln. And then in 1857 the Dred Scott v. Sandford case, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress did not have authority to prohibit slavery in territories, and that those provisions of the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional. It found that, under the admission act of Missouri, blacks and mulattos did not qualify as citizens of the United States.

Illinois State Capitol removed from Kaskaskia to Vandalia, in present day Fayette County.

Lady fingers introduced

Maine admitted into the union as the 23rd state on March 15, 1820, having been settled by 1624

Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri as slave state but slavery was barred in rest of Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30' N. (the southern boundry of Missouri)

Revolts at Nola, Avellino and Naples

1821 - 1829 Greek War of Independence

Honduras, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, Pamana and Santo Domingo wins independence from Spain. Agustín de Iturbide makes himself emperor of Mexico and disbands the elected congress when they refuse to support him.

Missouri was admitted into the union as the 24th state August 10, 1821, having been settled by 1735

Nathan Bedford Forrest was born in 1821. He was the (US) Confederate General who led cavalry raids against Union supply lines in Civil War.

Second Inauguration of President James Monroe 1821

The Germanic custom of having a specially decorated tree at Christmas time was introduced to America by Pennsylvania Dutch in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (or perhaps 45 years earlier by the German Hessian troops during the Revolutionary War during Christmas of 1776). Later in the century, the Pennsylvania Dutch version of St. Nicholas, Sinterklaas, evolved into America's Santa Claus, popularized by a German immigrant and influential political cartoonist, Thomas Nast. The Easter bunny and Easter eggs were also brought to this country by German immigrants.

Act authorizing the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, passed by Congress.

Brazil becomes independent under the rule of Emperor Pedro I (son of the Portuguese king)

Earthquake in Aleppo, Asia Minor kills 22,000 in 1822

Greeks proclaim a republic and independence from Turkey. Turks invade Greece. Russia declares war on Turkey (1828). Greece also aided by France and Britain. After the Greek War of Independence, successfully waged against the Ottoman Empire from 1821 to 1829, the nascent Greek state was finally recognized under the London Protocol in 1830.

Liberia is founded on the west coast of Africa. In 1822, the American Colonization Society, working to "repatriate" black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, established Liberia as a place to send people who were formerly enslaved. This movement of black people by the A.C.S. had broad support nationwide among white people in the United States, including politicians such as Henry Clay and James Monroe. They believed this was preferable to emancipation of slaves in the United States. Some free African Americans chose to emigrate to Liberia.

Schubert's Eighth Symphony ("The Unfinished").

Slavery defeated at the ballot in Illinois August 1822.

1823-1829 Pope Leo XII

Charles MacIntosh (1766-1843), a Scottish chemist and inventor, found in 1823 that fabrics could be made waterproof by treating with natural rubber. Charles Macintosh patented his invention for waterproof cloth in 1823 and the first Mackintosh coats were made in the family's textile factory, Charles Macintosh and Co. of Glasgow. The Mackintosh raincoat (the variant spelling is now standard) is named for him. The word "rubber" had been coined for the ability of this resilient material to rub out pencil marks

Cyrus P. Dalkin of Concard, Massachusetts invents carbon copies, although the public did not widely adopt the idea until about fifty years later.

First all-German singing society founded in Cincinnati

In Mexico a rebellion led by Antonio de Santa Anna (1794-1876) forces dictator Itubide to abdicate in March 1823.

Nebraska became the 37th state when it was admitted into the union on March 1, 1867, having been settled by 1823

Pope Leo XII

The Honduras achieve independence from Mexico and join the United Provinces of Central America.

The Monroe Doctrine Dec. 2, 1823

U.S. Monroe Doctrine introduced on December 2, 1823, by US President, James Monroe, stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed, by the United States of America, as acts of aggression requiring US intervention.

A1 Steak Sauce introduced

Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

Charles X of France crowned.

Fatal epidemic (cause unidentified) in the Canadian Columbia River drainage

James Beaumont Neilson (1792–1865), a Scottish inventor, patented a way of burning coal more efficiently in iron making that allows the low-grade coal in Lanarkshire to be used. Neilson realized that the force of the blast could be increased by passing hot air, rather than cold air, through the red-hot vessel. This reduced the amount of coal required to make iron, and greatly increased production efficiency to meet the demands of the railway and shipbuilding industries. His several defences of his patent were successful, and he became rich.

Mexico becomes a republic, three years after declaring independence from Spain. In 1824, a Republican Constitution was drafted and Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born country.

Simon Bolívar liberates Peru, becomes its president.

Birth

Simeon Woods born during 1825

Alexander's younger brother, Nicholas I (1796–1855) is crowned Emperor of Russia and ruled until 1855. Nicholas was one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 7.7 million square miles.

Bolivia wins independence from Spain.

Col. John Stevens, III (1749-1838), of Hoboken, NJ built and operated first experimental steam locomotive in the US. The first railroad charter in the U.S. was given to Stevens and others in 1815 for the New Jersey Railroad. He designed and built a steam locomotive capable of hauling several passenger cars at his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1825. The invention of the steam engine helped begin the modern railroads and trains. He also helped develop United States patent law.

Erie Canal opened October 26, 1825. The first boat left Buffalo on that day and reached New York City on November 4. Canal cost $7 million but cut travel time one-third, reduced shipping costs 90 percent, and opened the Great Lakes area for passage to and from New York, thus mading New York City the chief US port.

First passenger-carrying railroad in England.

First steam powered railways are run in England.

German language study introduced at Harvard University

Harmonists build their third town, Old Economy, now part of Ambridge, PA

Inauguration of President John Quincy Adams 1825

Putnam County, named for General Israel Putnam (1718-1790), was created in the state of Illinois January 13, 1825 and created from Fulton County. Putnam was an American army general who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775) during the American Revolutionary War. Although Putnam never attained national renown in his own time, his reckless courage and fighting spirit were known far beyond Connecticut's borders (at the age of 22 he moved from Salem Village/now Danvers, Massachusetts to Mortlake/now Pomfret, in northeastern Connecticut and his house still stands) through the circulation of folk legends celebrating his exploits. Tradition describes young Putnam crawling into a tiny wolf's den with a torch, a musket, and his feet secured with rope as to be quickly pulled out of the den. While in the den, he allegedly killed the she-wolf, making sheep farming in Mortlake safe.

Russian Tsar Alexander I dies. (His sudden death in Taganrog, under allegedly suspicious circumstances, caused the spread of the rumors that Alexander in fact did not die in 1825, but chose to "disappear" and to live the rest of his life in anonymity.)

The Decemberist uprising in Russia took place in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg December 14, 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. The revolt was suppressed by newly crowned Czar Nicholas I.

The parallel 54°40' north forms the southernmost boundary between the U.S. State of Alaska and the Canadian Province of British Columbia. The boundary was originally established as a result of tri-partite negotiations between the Russian Empire, the British Empire and the United States, resulting in parallel treaties in 1824 and 1825

1

1826 M.Taveau in France invents mercury amalgam fillings.

An act of the US Congress set off the mania of planting silkworm mulberry, a short-lived industry.

Cholera epidemic begins in India.

Deaths of former presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, on 50th anniversary of American independence, July 4th, 1826.

Fort Vancouver Canada established by the Hudson Bay Company on Columbia River in 1826 to secure the area and act as the hub for their fur trading in the Pacific Northwest

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce takes the world's first photograph. building on a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light. Niépce and Louis Daguerre refined this process. Daguerre discovered that exposing the silver first to iodine vapor, before exposure to light, and then to mercury fumes after the photograph was taken, could form a latent image, and then bathing the plate in a salt bath fixes the image. These ideas led to the famous daguerreotype.

Russian Tsar Nicholas I forces the Ottoman (Turkish) to recognize the independence of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Serbia. Russian troops invade Iran.

The Third Section of the Chancellery is created in Imperial Russia, a secret department set up in Imperial Russia, effectively serving as the Imperial regime's secret police for much of its existence. The organization was relatively small. Created in 1825, it included only sixteen investigators.

The friction match is invented in England.

The unexploited forests of Burma gave impetus to the British conquest of that country. The first area opened (Tenasserim) "was stripped of teak within twenty years." By the end of the century about 10,000,000 acres of Burma forest were cleared.

Twigs (apparently predominately of basket willow) had long been utilized in England to record tax payments. Notches made in each twig indicated the amount of tax paid. Once split the notched twig yielded two records of payment. When the tax records went to paper transaction in 1826, the archive of twigs was burned. The resulting fire escaped control and took with it the Houses of Parliament.

2

Dr. Francis Lieber (1800-1872), from Berlin begins editing the Encyclopaedia Americana in Boston in 1827. He is most widely known as the author of the Lieber Code during the American Civil War, also known as Code for the Government of Armies in the Field (1863), which laid the foundation for conventions governing the conduct of troops during wartime.

Edgar Alan Poe (1809-1849) publishes his first book, best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the detective-fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe published his first book, "Tamerlane and Other Poems," in 1827.

Francisco Morazán leads the Liberals in a civil war in Honduras - the war lasts about two years.

Russian troops conquer Iran.

3

Baltimore & Ohio first US passenger Rail Road was begun on July 4, 1828.

1828 - 1829 Russo-Turkish War, 1828-29

1829-1831 Pope Pius VIII

Catholic Emancipation Act removes last vestige of oppression in England.

Coenraad Johannes van Houten (1801-1887), a Dutch chemist and chocolate maker, developed the first modern process for making cocoa powder. Soon producers in Holland had learned that alkali could be added to neutralize various acids, making a mild, more soluble cocoa. This process is still called "dutching" today. A method for pressing the fat (cocoa butter) from roasted cocoa beans, was his father's, Casparus van Houten (1770-1858), invention.

Helsinki replaces Turku as the site of Finland's sole university.

Leo Tolstoy is born.

Noah Webster published his "The American Dictionary of the English Language" in 1828.

Russo-Turkish wars (again... from 1828-1829) Russia gains control of the eastern coast of the Black Sea.

South Carolina declared right of state nullification of federal laws on December 19, 1828, opposing "Tariff of Abominations."

Uruguay wins independence from Spain.

4

First Inauguration of President Andrew Jackson 1829

Gottfried Duden (1789-1856) published in Germany his idyllic account of the several years he spent as a settler in Missouri. Entitled Bericht über eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten Nordamerika's, or "Report of a journey to the western states of North America", it gave romantic and glowing descriptions of the Missouri River valley between St. Louis and Hermann, Missouri. He established a farm near what is now Dutzow, Missouri along the Missouri River near Washington, Missouri. His book on the region, comparing the Missouri River to the Rhine in Germany, and his positive remarks concerning the climate, culture and soils in Missouri led to tens of thousands of German immigrants to the area beginning in the 1830s. By 1860, more than 38,000 Germans had settled in the lower Missouri River valley and thousands more to other parts of America.

Greeks win independence from the Ottoman empire at the end of a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1830, with later assistance from several European powers

Pope Pius VIII

The first steam driven train is developed for use between Manchester and Liverpool.

Treaty of Adrianople concluded the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

1830's

5

1830 - 1831 Polish-Russian war following November Uprising

1830 Britain imports 18,956 chests of opium to China. Opium becomes the largest commodity in world trade.

Soft drinks in America introduced

6

1831 Cholera epidemic spreads from Russia to Central Europe.

1831 Smallpox epidemic in Wurtemberg, Germany, where 995 vaccinated people succumb to the disease.

In Marseilles, France, 2000 vaccinated people are stricken with smallpox

7

Christian Hahnemann creates school of homeopathy.

8

1833 Mercury amalgam fillings introduced in NYC. Dentists rebelled.

Second Inauguration of President Andrew Jackson 1833

10

1835 First availability of powerful compound microscopes.

1835 Toledo War between US territory of Michigan and the US state of Ohio

Worcestershire Sauce introduced

11

1836 First recorded case of the use of psychiatry to suppress dissent in Russia.

12

Idaho potatoes introduced

Inauguration of President Martin Van Buren 1837

Ralph Waldo Emerson's Concord Hymn July 4, 1837

13

1838 Smallpox epidemic in England.

14

1839 - 1842 First Anglo-Afghan War

1839 - 1842 Second Anglo-Afghan War

1839 First time a disease is traced to a parasitic organism. (Schoenlein, fungal infection of scalp).

1840's

15

Baltimore Dental College graduates swore not to use mercury amalgam.

First Opium War in China, as Chinese protest British import of drugs.

16

Inauguration of President William Henry Harrison 1841

18

1843 - 1872 Several Maori Land Wars in New Zealand

20

Inauguration of President James K. Polk 1845

21

1846 - 1848 Mexican War between the United States and Mexico

Nucleus of physicians in New York form the American Medical Association.

22

Chinese food in America introduced

23

1848 - 1849 Hungarian Revolt of 1848 waged by Hungary against Austria and later Russia

1848 - 1851 First war of Schleswig

1848 Dr.Semmelweis at the University of Vienna Medical School cuts infant deaths by requiring doctors to wash their hands. Subsequently fired.

24

Concord grapes introduced

Inauguration of President Zachary Taylor 1849

1850's

25

1850 - 1865 Taiping Rebellion

A new way of thinking develops in German science, which maintains that people are similar to complex machines. It does nothing to take into account the spiritual basis of man. This thinking becomes the basis for experiments in psychology in order to discover the nature of humans and how to program them. The work of Wundt is the primary source of these ideas. American elite begin to come to Germany to study this way of thinking.

British physician presents a paper detailing microscopic examination of food products to the US . The paper revealed that all food products examined in Britain were adulterated with foreign substances, including chemicals. Hearings periodically held for decades.

Homeopathic college founded in Cleveland, Ohio.

Modern marshmallows introduced

US prison population is 29 per100,000 (This goes up to 250 per 100,000 by 1994).

28

His mother, Mariah Cook Woods, died on October 02, 1853

1853 Chloroform first used as anesthetic in England.

1853 Dr. Isaac Brown, a prominent British surgeon and president of the Medical Society of London, creates a surgical procedure to remove the clitoris from women on the grounds that "masturbation caused epilepsy and convulsive diseases."

1853 First use of hypodermic needle for subcutaneous injection.

1853 Smallpox epidemic in England.

In England, the Compulsory Vaccination Act . From 1853 to 1860, vaccination reached 75% of the live births and more than 90% of the population.

Inauguration of President Franklin Pierce 1853

Potato chips introduced

29

1854 - 1856 Crimean War.

30

1855 Compulsory nature of Massachusetts vaccination statute firm, and a pre- condition for school admittance. Statutes created in the belief it would "protect children from smallpox."

1855 Outbreak of cholera in England.

31

Condensed milk introduced

32

1857 - 1901 Caste War of Yucat?n

1857 Vaccination in England enforced by fines. Smallpox epidemic begins in England that lasts until 1859. Over 14,000 die.

Inauguration of President James Buchanan 1857

33

His father, James M. Woods, died on September 08, 1858

1858 England experiences a 7 year epidemic of Pertussis (ending in 1865) in which 120,000 die.

34

1859 - 1860 Italian Independence War

1869 Mohandas Gandhi born

Darwin publishes The Origin of Species

Rumford Baking Powder introduced

1860's

35

Fish & chips introduced

Introduction of antibiotics and immunization into the US.

36

1861 - 1865 American Civil War in the United States

First Inauguration of President Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1861

The Battle Hymn of the Republic

The Constitution of the Confederate States of America March 11, 1861

The Declaration of Causes of seceding states Winter 1861

37

December 1682 Henry de Tonti made Governor of Illinois by France.

McClellan's Letter to President Lincoln July 7, 1862

Vernor's Ginger Ale & Gulden's mustard introduced

38

1863 Second major epidemic of smallpox in England lasts until 1865. 20,000 die.

Breakfast cereal introduced

The Gettysburg Address Nov. 19, 1863

39

1864 Pasteur invents pasteurization process for wine.

1864 Second war of Schleswig

The Emancipation Proclamation 1864

40

1865 George Peabody (Rothschilds) conceives of "tax exempt charitable foundation".

1865 U.S. President Lincoln assassinated

Second Inauguration of President Abraham Lincoln 1865

41

1866 - 1868 Red Cloud's War between the Lakota and the United States

1866 Austro-Prussian War (aka Seven Weeks War)

42

1867 Joseph Lister introduces sanitation into surgery,over the objections of leading English surgeons.

Appeal to Congress for Impartial Suffrage by Frederick Douglass Jan. 1867

Underwood Deviled Ham introduced

Vaccination Act of 1867 in England begins to elicit protest from the population and increase in the number of anti-vaccination groups. It compelled the vaccination of a baby within the first 90 days of its life. Those who objected would be continually badgered by magistrates and fined until the child turned 14. The law was passed on the assurance of medical officials that smallpox vaccinations were safe.

43

Tabasco sauce & Fleischmann's Yeast introduced

44

Conference of the British Medical Association devotes its surgery discussions to an attack on antiseptic theory and the work of Lister.

First Inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant 1869

1870's

45

1870 - 1871 Franco-Prussian War

1870 Third major smallpox epidemic in England begins and lasts until 1872. Over 44,800 die.

Margarine introduced

46

1871 Kaiser Wilhelm I declares a German Empire

1871 Worldwide epidemic of smallpox begins. Claims 8 million people worldwide.

In Bavaria, Germany, vaccination is compulsory and re-vaccination is commonplace. Out of 30,472 cases of smallpox, 29,429 had been vaccinated.

In Birmingham, England from 1871 to 1874, there were 7,706 cases of smallpox. Out of these, 6,795 had been vaccinated.

Select committee of the Privy Council convened to inquire into the Vaccination Act of 1867 (England), as 97.5% of the people who died from smallpox were vaccinated for it.

47

1872 - 1873 Modoc War between the Modoc and the United States

Japan institutes compulsory smallpox vaccination. Within 20 years 165,000 smallpox cases manifest themselves.

Philadelphia cream cheese & Graham crackers introduced

48

Second Inauguration of President Ulysses S. Grant 1873

50

California raisins introduced

Public Health Act of 1875 in England promotes sanitary conditions.

51

1876 - 1877 Black Hills War between the Lakota and the United States

Heinz Ketchup introduced

52

1877 - 1878 Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78

Bicycles begin to be mass produced in the United States in 1877

Inauguration of President Rutherford B. Hayes 1877

53

Louis Pasteur tells his family never to show anyone his lab notebooks. His last surviving grandson donated the documents to the Bibiotheque Nationale in Paris in 1964. Later, historians would begin to examine Pasteurs notes and would find evidence of potential scientific misconduct and a large degree of dubious human experimentation.

54

1879 Joseph Stalin born

Saccharin introduced

1880's

55

1880 Recorded death rate from diabetes in Denmark is 1.8 per 100,000. (This will go up to 8 per100.00 in 1911 and 19 per 100,000 in 1934).

Beginning of a 20 year period where elite American students of Wundt in Germany return and become heads of psychology departments at Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, Cornell and all major universities and colleges. Wundt trains James Cattell, who returns to the US and trains over 300 in the Wundtian system which, with help from the Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations, eventually assume control of psychological testing in the United States for all the soldiers of the First World War.

Salt water taffy & French dressing introduced

Smallpox vaccinations start in the United States.

Sweden consumption of refined sugar 12 pounds per person annually. (This will go up to 120 lb per person annually in 1929).

The League of American Wheelmean is founded and begins producing maps and handbooks of the eastern U.S. in 1880

56

Simeon Woods died during October 1881

1881 President Garfield assassinated

Inauguration of President James Garfield 1881

57

1882 Koch isolates the TB Bacillus. TB death rate 370 per 100,000.

59

1884 In England, more that 1700 children vaccinated for smallpox die of syphillis.

60

1885 General vaccination program against rabies begins in the United States.

First Inauguration of President Grover Cleveland 1885

Milk shakes & Dr Pepper & evaporated milk introduced

61

Coca Cola introduced

62

1887 - 1889 Italo-Abyssinian War

1887 New York doctor Ephraim Cutter publishes a book on cancer and the diet.

Malted milk & Georgia pecans introduced

63

1888 Bacteriological Institute opens in Paris for experimentation with animals and production of vaccines and sera. Other institutes open around the world modeled after the Paris Institute.

64

Inauguration of President Benjamin Harrison 1889

Most of Britain's food production becomes industrialized.

Pizza introduced

1890's

65

1890 Emil vin Behring announces discovery of anti-toxins.

Andrew Carnegie writes a series of eleven essays called "The Gospel of Wealth", a treatise which essentially stated that free enterprise and capitalism no longer existed in the United States, because he and Rockefeller owned everything, including the government, and that competition was impossible unless they allowed it. Eventually, says Carnegie, the young children will become aware of this and form clandestine organizations to fight against it. Carnegie proposes that men of wealth form a synthetic free enterprise system based on cradle-to-grave schooling. The people who advanced through schooling would be given licenses to lead profitable lives. All licenses are tied to forms of schooling. This way, the entire economy can be controlled and people have a motivation for them to learn what you want them to learn. It also places the minds of all children in the hands of a few social engineers.

66

Fig Newtons & Knox Gelatine introduced

67

1892 Cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany. Threat of importation into the US forced the establishment of the New York City Health Department division of Pathology, Bateriology and Disinfection.

America takes the lead in world wide sugar consumption, surpassing the British. Sugar consumption would double again by 1920.

68

1893 German Dr.Julius Hensel states that processed flour is devoid of nutrients.

1893 Johns Hopkins Medical School established. Headquarters of German Allopathic Medicine.

First American automobiles produced in 1893

Fudge & Cracker Jacks introduced

Second Inauguration of President Grover Cleveland 1893

69

1894 - 1895 First Sino-Japanese War

Hershey bars & Sen-Sen introduced

70

1895 - 1896 First Italo-Abyssinian War

1895 Diptheria vaccination program begins. Over the period lasting until 1907, 63,249 cases of diptheria were treated with anti-toxin. Over 8,900 died, giving a fatality rate of 14%. Over the same period, 11,716 cases were not treated with anti-toxin, of which 703 died, giving a fatality rate of 6%.

Peanut butter & Salisbury steak introduced

71

Chop suey & oatmeal cookies introduced

72

1897 AMA formally incorporated, paying $3 fee to State of Illinois.

Chloride of lime first used to sterilize drinking water.

First Inauguration of President William McKinley 1897

Jell-O & 1000 Island dressing & cotton candy & Melba toast & tangelos introduced

73

1898 Marie Curie discovers radium.

1898 Spanish-American War

J.R. Ewald, professor of physicology at Strassbourg University in Germany experiments using brain electrode implants.

Pepsi & Texas sweet onions & jelly beans & candy corn introduced

74

1899 - 1902 Boer War in South Africa

1900's

75

AMA began to achieve goal of replacing existing medical system with allopathy (system that treats diseases with drugs).

Cancer causes 4% of deaths in the United States. Deaths from measles were 13 per 100,000.

U.S. has 8,000 registered automobiles by 1900

1901 Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research founded.

Peanut butter & jelly introduced

Second Inauguration of President William McKinley 1901

American Automobile Association (AAA) is founded in 1902 and begins issuing maps to its members

Karo syrup introduced

Nabisco's Animal Crackers introduced

Canned tuna introduced

Pope St. Pius X

1904 Eugenics (the study of the hereditary improvement of the human race by controlled selective breeding) established as a course at University College in London.

Banana splits & Ovaltine introduced

Rand McNally becomes one of the first commercial map publishers to produce road maps in 1904 - some were picture maps showing identifiable landmarks along the roadways

1905 Food and Drug Act passed in the United States.

1905 Russo-Japanese War

Inauguration of President Theodore Roosevelt 1905

New York pizza introduced

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